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# Vibrations and Waves

### Physics Ch 25

An oscillation, or repeating back and forth motion, about an equilibrium position. Vibration
A disturbance that repeats regularly in space and time and that is transmitted progressively from one place to the next with no actual transport of matter. Wave
The time required for a pendulum to make one to-and fro swing. In general, the time required to complete a single cycle. Period
The back-and-forth vibratory motion of a swinging pendulum. Simple Harmonic Motion
A curve whose shape represents the crests and troughs of a wave, as traced out by a singing pendulum that drops a trail of sand over a moving conveyor belt. Sine Curve
One of the places in a wave where the wave is highest or the disturbance is greatest. Crest
One of the places in a wave where the wave is lowest or the disturbance is greatest in the opposite direction from a crest. Trough
The distance from the midpoint to the maximum (crest) of a wave or equivalently from the midpoint to the minimum midpoint (trough). Amplitude
The distance from the top of the crest of a wave to the top of the following crest, or equivalently the distance between successive identical parts of a wave. Wavelength
The number of events (cycles, vibrations, oscillations, or any repeated event)per time; measured in Hertz (or events per time). Inverse of period. Frequency
The SI unit of frequency. One cycle per second Hertz
A wave with vibration at right angles to the direction the wave is traveling. Transverse Wave
A wave in which the vibration is in the same direction as that in which the wave is traveling rather than at right angles to it. Longitudinal Wave
A pattern formed the overlapping of two or more waves that arrive in a region at the same time. Interference Pattern
Addition of two or more waves when wave crests overlap to produce a resulting wave of increased amplitude. Constructive Interference
Combination of waves where crests of one wave overlap troughs of another, resulting in a wave of decreased amplitude. Destructive Interference
Term applied to two waves for which the crest of one wave arrives at a point at the same time that trough of the second wave arrives. Their effects cancel each other. Out of Phase
Term Applied to two or more waves whose crests (and troughs) arrive at a place at the same time, so that their effects reinforce each other. In Phase
Wave in which parts of the wave remain stationary and the wave appears not to be traveling. The result of interference between an incident (original) wave and a reflected wave. Standing Wave
Any part of a standing wave that remains stationary. Node
The position on a standing wave where the largest amplitude occurs. Antinodes
The apparent charge in frequency of a wave due to the motion of the source or of the receiver. Doppler Effect
An increase in the measured frequency of light from an approaching source; got its name because the apparent increase is toward the high frequency, or blue, end of the color spectrum. Also occurs when the observer approaches a source. Blue Shift
A decrease in the measured frequency of light (or other radiation) from a reading source; got its name because the decreases toward the low frequency, or red, end of the color spectrum. Red Shift
The v-shaped wave produced by an object moving one a liquid surface faster than the wave speed. Bow Wave
A cone-shaped wave produced by an object moving at supersonic speed through a fluid. Shock Wave
The sharp crack heard when the shock wave that sweeps behind a supersonic aircraft reaches the listener. Sonic Boom
What determines the period of a pendulum? The period of the pendulum depends only on the length of a pendulum and the acceleration of gravity.
What is the source of all waves? The source of all waves is something that vibrates.
How does a wave transfer energy? The energy transferred by a wave from a vibrating source to a receiver is carried by a disturbance in a medium.
How do you calculate the speed of a wave? You can calculate the speed of a wave by multiplying the wavelength by the frequency.
What are some examples of transverse waves? Waves in the stretched strings of musical instruments and the electromagnetic waves that make up radio waves and light are transverse.
What is an example of a longitudinal wave? Sound waves are longitudinal waves.
What causes interference patterns? Interference patterns occur when waves from different sources arrive at the same point-at the same time.
At what wavelength can a standing wave form in a vibrating medium? A standing wave forms only if half a wavelength or a multiple of half a wavelength fits exactly into the length of the vibrating medium.
How does the apparent frequency of waves change as a wave source moves? As a wave source approaches, a observer encounters waves with a higher frequency. As the wave source moves away, an observer encounters waves with a low frequency.
What causes a bow wave? A bow wave occurs when a wave source moves faster than the waves it produces.
What causes a shock wave? A shock wave occurs when an object moves faster than the speed of sound.
Created by: 16_cmessina

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