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Sun & Stars Test

QuestionAnswer
high luminosity equals brightness
bright hot star equals brighter than the sun and hotter than the sun
the left side of an HR diagram is what? hot
the right side of an HR diagram is what? cool
the lower half of an HR diagram is what? dim
the upper half of an HR diagram is what? bright
main sequence stars go through what quadrant(s) of an HR diagram? A and D
white dwarf stars go through what quadrant(s) of an HR diagram? C
red giant stars go through what quadrant(s) of an HR diagram? B
how many times smaller than the sun is a white dwarf star? one million
high mass stars are where on an HR diagram? upper left
low mass stars are where on an HR diagram? lower right
what is the life span of a high mass star? short
what is the life span of a low mass star? long
what percentage of stars are main sequence? 90%
has a solar mass greater than 10 high mass star
has a solar mass lower than 10 low mass star
what do high mass stars fuse? everything except iron
what are the stages of a star? main sequence, red giant, yellow giant, red giant, planetary nebula explosion, and white dwarf
what does a main sequence star fuse? hydrogen to helium
what does a red giant fuse? trick question! they don't fuse anything
what does a yellow giant star fuse? helium to carbon
Chandraskhar limit is the maximum mass of a stable white dwarf star; around 1.4 solar masses --any bigger and it becomes a neutron star
Nova pulls hydrogen off of other stars to stay alive
Type 2 supernova death of a high mass star
Type 1A supernova pulls hydrogen off of other star and adds to its own mass as well
what planet has a similar density to the sun? jupiter (1410 kg/m^3)
what is the chemical composition of the sun? almost all hydrogen and helium & metals
what is the surface temp of the sun? 6000 degrees
what is the radius of the sun? 100 earth radii
what is the volume of the sun? one million times the earth
what is the structure of the sun? core, radiation zone, convection zone, photosphere, chromosphere, corona, solar wind
what is fusion? process that produces energy
what happens in the sun's core? fusion occurs -- hydrogen to helium
what happens in the sun's radiation zone? energy escapes here
what happens in the convection zone? gas is heated to the point of boiling
what happens in the photosphere? sunlight escapes here
what is the photosphere? the top layer of the convection zone
what is the luminosity of the sun? 3.86 10^26 Watts
what are sunspots? dark regions in the photosphere; cooler than the photosphere; has an intense magnetic field
what is the sunspot cycle? an 11-year cycle in which the number of sunspots reaches a maximum and minimum
what is the solar cycle? a 22-year cycle in which the Sun's magnetic pole reverse and return to their original configuration.
low luminosity means? low mass
what is the magnitude of a parsec? 3.3 light years
brightness if you can see it, you know how bright it is
what magnitude scale is used for brightness? apparent magnitude scale
what magnitude scale is used for luminosity? absolute magnitude scale
the lower the magnitude the brighter and more luminous the object
if there is a magnitude difference of 5 then.... the lower number is 100 times brighter than the other
luminosity is the energy per unit time produced by the star
brightness formula? Luminosity/(4*Pi*Distance^2)
cephied variables are the period of pulsations of the luminosity
spectroscopic parallax temperature and main sequence
how do you determine the temp when measuring a star? wien's law
how do determine the mass when measuring a star? kepler's 3rd law applied to binary stars
what are binary stars? stars that orbit each other
how do you determine the radius/volume/size when measuring a star? stefan boltzmann law
how do you determine the radial velocity when measuring a star? studying the doppler effect
what is the remnant of a dead high mass star? a neutron star or a black hole
using only the brightness and the ditance to a star what can be determined? luminosity
what is a parallax? the one direct method we have for measuring the distance to a star?
using the temperature and luminosity of a star only what can be determined? radius
Created by: laurenash