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Pysics Chapter 25


Vibration An oscillation or repeating back and forth motion about an wquilibrium position
Wave A disturbance that repeats regularly in space and time and that is transmitted progresively from one place to the next with no actual transport of matter
Period The time required for a complete orbit. The time required for a pendulum to make one to and fro swing in general the time required to complete a single cycle
Simple Harmonic Motion The back and forth vibratory motion of a swining pendulum
Spine Curve A curve whose shape represents the crests and troughs of a wave, as traces out by a swining pendulum that drops a trail of sand over a moving conveyor belt
Crest One of the places in a wave where the wave is highest or the disturbance is greatest
Trough One of the places in a wave where the wave is lowest, or the disturbance is greatest in the opposite direction from a crest
Amplitude The distance from the midpoint to the maximum (crest) of a wave or,ewuivalently, from the midpoint to the minimum (trough)
wavelength The distance from the top of the crest of a wave to the top of the following crest, or equivalently the distance between successive identical parts of the wave
Frequency The number of events (cycles,vibratory,oscill actions or any repeated event) per time measured in hertz or events per time inverse of period
Hertz the SI unit of frequency one hertz (Hz) is one cycle per second
Transverse wave A wave with vibration at right angles to the direction the wave is traveling
Longitudinal wave a wave in which the vibration is in the same direction as that in which the wave is traveling rather than at right angles to it
INterference pattern A pattern formed by the overlapping of two or more waves that arrive in a region at the same time
Constructive Interference Addition of two or more waves when wave crests overlap to produce a resulting wave of increased amplitude
Destructive interference Combination of waves where crests of one wave overlap troughs of another resulting in a wave of decreased amplitude
Out of phase Term applied to two waves for which the crest of one wave arrives at a poit at the same time that a trough of the second wave arrives their effects cancel each other
In phase Term applied to two or more waves whos crests and troughs arrive at a place at the same time so that thier effects reinforce each other
Standing wave Wave in which parts of the wave remain stationary and the wave appears not to be traveling. THe result of interference between an incidennt (original) wave and a reflected wave
Node Any part of a standing wave that remains stationary
Antinodes The positions on a standing wave where the largests amplitudes occur
Blue Shift An increase in the measured frequency of light from an approahing source called the blue shift because the apparent increase is toward the high frquency or blue end of the color spectrum also occurs when an observer apporaches a source
Red Shift A decrease in the measured frequency of lght or other radiation from a receding source called the red shift because the decrease is toward the low frequency or red end of the color spectrum
Bow wave The v shaped wave produced by an object moving on a liquid surface faster than the wave speed
Shock wave A cone shaped wave produced by an object moving at a supersonic speed through a fluid
Sonic Boom The sharp crack heard when the shock wave that sweeps behind a supersonic aircraft reaches the listner
vibration repeating back and fourth motion
Wave A disturbance that is transmitted from one place to the next with no acual transport of matter alos a wiggle in time and space
Light and sound 2 forms of energy that move through space as waves
The period of the pendulum depends only on the length of a pendulum and the cceleration of gravity
Cyxle one complete back and fourth motion
Period time for one cycle
does not depend on the weight or size of the swing...but does depend on the length of the pendulum
The source of all waves is something that vibrates
Simple Harmonic Motion Back and fourth vibration motion (oscillations)
Sine Curve Pictorial representation of a wave formed by swining a pendulum or bouncing spring
Wavelength symbol λ
Frequency # of vibrations in a given time usually one second
Symbol of frequency F
Symbol for period T
What is the frequency in vibrtions per second of a 100 Hz wave? A 100 Hz wave vibrates 100 times 10
transverse wave the motiom of the medium is at right angles to the direction of the wave motion
Created by: 16_msteinlage