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Physics Unit 7

To measure the temperature of a substance, you use a device called a ___________. thermometer
If you transfer thermal ________ from one object to another, you are transferring heat. energy
You pour very hot water into a teakettle with cool water; after 30 seconds, the teakettle's water is hot because ________ equilibrium was reached. thermal
To determine the _________ of your friend's fever, you have him hold a thermometer in his mouth for one minute. temperature
On a _______ thermometer, water freezes at 273.15, whereas water boils at 373.15. Kelvin
Water freezes at 0 degrees and boils at 100 degrees on a ________ thermometer. Celsius
To obtain an equal temperature in kelvins, you add _______ degrees to Celsius degrees. 273.15
To obtain an equivalent temperature in Celsius for a Fahrenheit reading, use the formula _____________. C=5/9(F-32)
You record a temperature of 15 degrees C; to record the temperature in degrees Fahrenheit, you would use the formula ____________. F=9/5(C+32)
A previous belief was that heat was a substance called _______ that flowed from one object to another. caloric
According to the _________ theory, scientists thought that heat was only in flammable materials. phlogiston
The __________ theory of heat says that heat is the transfer of kinetic energy from one substance to another. molecular
Molecules moving at a high speed have higher ______ energy than molecules moving at a low speed. kinetic
_______ creates heat when two surfaces rub against each other. Friction
A unit used to express heat on air conditioners, refrigerators, and heaters is the _________. BTU
A measurement of heat used in dietary matters is the ________. calorie
The calorie, a non-SI heat unit, is equivalent to ________. 4.186 J
Most materials _________ when they are heated. expand
Engineers use ________________ to figure out how much a bar will lengthen if it is heated. linear thermal expansion
What is the formula for finding a solid's linear thermal expansion coefficient? aL=1/L X ^L/^T
The amount a solid's volume expands when the solid is exposed to heat is defined as the _____________. volumetric expansion
The formula to determine the coefficient of volume expansion is _________. ^V=aV X V(^T)
The units specific heat capacity is expressed in are ___________. kJ/kg X k
The amount of energy needed to raise 1 kilogram of a substance a temperature of one degree Celsius, is the substance's ___________. specific heat capacity
Frequently, a substance's specific heat capacity is compared to that of ________. water
Though a metal, mercury is a liquid at room temperature (22 degrees C); at -38.83 degrees C, mercury becomes a solid and at 356.73 degrees C, mercury boils, transforming into a gas. At -38.83 degrees C and 356.73 degrees C, mercury is undergoing ________. phase changes
The formula for specific heat capacity is __________. Cp=Q/m^T
The amount of heat you add or take away from a substance to create a phase change is ________. latent heat
If you add heat to ice to create liquid water, the heat energy is called ____________. heat of fusion
If you heat water to create steam, the heat energy is _________. heat of vaporization
Heat may be transferred by three methods: convection, conduction, and _________. radiation
During the _________ of heat, heat moves between a substance's molecules. conduction
The movement of excited molecules in a current during heat transfer is _________. convection
Traveling electromagnetic waves transfer heat in the method of heat transfer called ________. radiation
Since copper readily conducts electricity, it will also readily conduct ________. heat
Thermal energy always ends up in an area of lower temperature after traveling there from an area of ________. higher temperature
Number the following according to how tightly bound the molecules are in each of the substances, with 1 being most tightly and 3 being the least: gaseous tin, liquid tin, solid tin 1. solid tin 2. liquid tin 3. gaseous tin
What states that energy cannot be created nor destroyed in any process, it can only be changed from one form into another and will be conserved? the first law of thermodynamics
What states that energy systems are always increasing in entropy? the second law of thermodynamics
What states that energy always exists in a system meaning that absolute zero can never be reached? the third law of thermodynamics
What states that if two systems are in thermal equilibrium with a third, they are in thermal equilibrium with each other? the zeroth law of thermodynamics
What explains that energy always moves from a higher level of organization to a lower level of organization? entropy
Energy can be converted from thermal energy to mechanical energy and no energy will be created or destroyed, but will be conserved according to what? how thermal energy is converted to mechanical energy according to the first law of thermodynamics
If a mechanical system converts heat to mechanical energy, some energy will be lost because of inefficiency in the system according to what? how thermal energy is converted to mechanical energy according to the second law of thermodynamics
The law of ________ is another name for the second law of thermodynamics. entropy
An ideal machine would convert _________ of the fuel inputted to the machine into mechanical energy. 100%
The formula Q=^U+W displays the relationship between _______ and work. heat
The formula W=Fd is the formula for ________. work
The formula PEi+KEi=PEf+KEf is the formula for the _______ law of thermodynamics. first
The formula PEi+KEi=PEf+KEf+^U is the formula for the ________ law of thermodynamics. second
The division of T(hot)-T(cold)/T(hot) will give you a machine's ______________. ideal efficiency
What temperature is the limit beyond which no heat may be transferred out of a substance? absolute zero or 0 K
The change in internal temperature is the difference between the formulas for the _______ and _______ laws of thermodynamics. first;second
A closed system conserves all of its _______, but a certain amount of it will become unusable and dissipated as heat. energy
A detrimental effect is exerted by ______ in energy-conversion systems. entropy
The concept of entropy is that systems tend toward a state of ________. disorder
You measure the temperature of liquid caramel candy with degrees Celsius, Celsius being a temperature ________. scale
When you measure the temperature of liquid caramel candy on a thermometer, the caramel candy's thermal energy or _________ is transferred to the thermometer. heat
Measuring liquid caramel candy's temperature with a thermometer requires time because you need to wait until _________ has been reached between the liquid candy and the thermometer. thermal equilibrium
Ice at 32 degrees blankets your porch one winter day. To melt it, you pour boiling water at 212 degrees upon the ice. What scale are you using? Fahrenheit
When caramel liquid candy reaches a temperature at 236 degrees F on a thermometer, you need to remove it from the heat source. What formula would you use to obtain an equal Celsius reading? C=5/9(F-32)
To translate a Celsius temperature reading into a Kelvin temperature, what formula would you use? T=C+273.15
The temperature at which all molecular motion will theoretically cease is _____________. absolute zero
The idea that heat is the transfer of kinetic energy from one substance to another is the mainstay of the ________ theory of heat. molecular
In an earlier theory, scientists thought ________ was a substance that flowed from one object to another. caloric
Before, scientists believed that _________ was heat found only in flammable materials. phlogiston
To create a phase change in a material, you need to add or subtract an amount of heat called _________. latent heat
If you rub a rock on a gravel road, you create heat in the form of _________. friction
To change a substance from a solid to a liquid, you add latent heat called _________. heat of fusion
To convert a substance from liquid to gas, you add a latent heat called ________. heat of vaporization
In convection, the excited molecules of a substance move in a _______. current
In the heat transfer method of radiation, traveling ________ waves are responsible for transferring heat. electromagnetic
The law of ________ may be used for the second law of thermodynamics. entropy
The difference between the formulas for the first and second laws of thermodynamics is the change in _______ temperature. internal
Created by: jhincks



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