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CHO

Carbrohydrates

QuestionAnswer
General formula for a carbohydrate Cx(H20)y
Where are carbohydrates stored? liver and muscle glycogen
Trioses 3 carbons
tetroses 4 carbons
pentoses 5 carbons
hexoses 6 carbons
Disaccharide sugars maltose, lactose, surcrose
Monosaccharide sugars fructose, galactose, glucose
Reducing agents maltose lactose, fructose,galactose and glucose
Is sucrose a reducing agent? NO
Reducing agents must contain ______ and ______ ketone and an aldehyde group
Enzymes breakdown carbs
Amylase enzyme in saliva
pancreatic amylase produced in the panceas
What is the goal of the metabolism of carbohydrates? to break glucose down into co2+H20+ATP (energy)
glycolysis Anaerobic, good for tissue
glycolysis pathway Metabolism of glucose molecule to pyruvate or lactate for production of energy.
Gluconeogenesis Pathway Formation of glucose-6-phosphate from noncarbohydrate source
Glycogenolysis Breakdown of glycogen to glucose for use as energy
Glycogenesis pathway 3rd Pathway ! Conversion of glucose to glycogen for storage
Lipogenesis pathway Conversion of carbohydrates to fatty acids
Lipolysis pathway Decomposition of fat
anabolism building up metabolism
catabolism Breaking down metabolism
Insulin responsible for entry of glucose into the cell increases glycogenesis, glycolysis and lipogenesis Decreases glycogenolysis
Glucagon Responsible for increasing glucose levels increases glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis
ACTH(cortisol) increases plasma glucose by decreasing intestinal entry into the cell and increasing gluconeogenesis, liver glycogen and lipolysis
Epinephrine Increases plamsa glucose by inhibiting insulin secreation. Increases glycogenolysis and promotes lipolysis
GH Growth Hormone increaases plasma glucose by decreasing the entry of glucose into the cells and increases glycolysis
Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 B-cell destruction Absolute insulin deficiency Autoantibodies
Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 Insulin resistance with an insulin secretory defect Relative insulin deficiency
Gestational diabetes Glucose intolerance during pregnancy due to metabolis and hormonal changes
Infants born to diabetic mothers At risk for respiratory distress syndrome, hypoglicemia and hyperbillirubinemia
Normal Fasting Glucose FPG < 100 mg/dL ( 5.6mmol/L )
Impaired fasting glucose ( pre-diabetes) FPG 100-125 mg/dL (5.6-6.9 mmol/L )
Provisional diabetes diagnosis FPG > 126 mg/dL (7.0mmol/L )
Hypoglycemia Decrease in plasma glucose levels
Hyperglycemia Increase in plasma glucose levels
Expected values for CSF glucose 60-70% of plasma glucose level
Glucose oxidase Serum test
Hexokinase Serum test
Clinitest Urine test for glucose
Random
Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 B-cell destruction Absolute insulin deficiency Autoantibodies
Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 Insulin resistance with an insulin secretory defect Relative insulin deficiency
Gestational diabetes Glucose intolerance during pregnancy due to metabolis and hormonal changes
Infants born to diabetic mothers At risk for respiratory distress syndrome, hypoglicemia and hyperbillirubinemia
Normal Fasting Glucose FPG < 100 mg/dL ( 5.6mmol/L )
Impaired fasting glucose ( pre-diabetes) FPG 100-125 mg/dL (5.6-6.9 mmol/L )
Provisional diabetes diagnosis FPG > 126 mg/dL (7.0mmol/L )
Hypoglycemia Decrease in plasma glucose levels
Hyperglycemia Increase in plasma glucose levels
Expected values for CSF glucose 60-70% of plasma glucose level
Glucose oxidase Serum test
Hexokinase Serum test
Clinitest Urine test for glucose
Random plasma glucose Nonfasting >200 mg/dL
Fasting plasma glucose 8-10hr fast >126 mg/dL
OGTT Oral glucose tolerance test 2 hrs after 75g glucose loads >200 mg/dL 3 hr 1, 2, 3, hr samples after 75, used for GDM screening only
Whole blood glucose 2 hr post-prandial Daily self monitoring diabetics Less than 11% than plasma 2hr after meal Fasting and 2 hr sample
Created by: Sdevries0982