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Chemistry Ch 4-6


S Orbital Sphere; 1 Orbital
P Orbital Dumbbell; 3 Orbitals
Solid Fixed Volume; Fixed Shape
Liquid Fixed Volume; Takes on Shape of Container
Gas No Fixed Shape or Volume
Solid to a Gas Sublimation
Gas to a Solid Deposition
Atoms are made of.... Protons, Neutrons, & Electrons
Elements are made of... Atoms
Compounds (Molecules) are made from... Elements (In a fixed ratio) (Chemically Bound)
Mixtures are made from... Combinations of elements and/or compounds (Not Chemically Bound or Fixed Ratio)
Homogeneous Mixtures All Particles are Uniform and Mixed Thoroughly. (Salt water)
Heterogeneous Mixtures Particles are nonuniform; Can be separated physically. (Pizza, Chicken Noodle Soup)
Elements Can't be broken down; Made up of 1 type of atom.
Compounds (includes molecules) 2 or more different elements combined (always fixed ratio)
Atomic Mass Protons + Neutrons; Weighted Avg of All Isotopes
Physical Change Does not change chemical composition (Melting, Hammering)
Chemical Change Rearrangement of Atoms; Changes chemical composition (Fireworks)
Law of Conservation of Matter Total mass is same during chemical reaction.
Produced 1st Periodic Table Mendeleev (Arranged by mass instead of atomic #)
John Dalton Atomic Theory & Law of Multiple Proportions
Law of Multiple Proportions Elements combine in more than one ratio.
J.J. Thomson Discovered electrons and its charge:mass ratio with Crookes Tube.
Robert Milikan Discovers charge on electron with oil drop experiment.
Ernest Rutherford Gold Foil Experiment.
James Chadwick Discovers neutron by bombarding beryllium with alpha particles.
Isotope Atoms with same atomic # but different mass numbers (Different # of neutrons)
Negatively charged atom Anion
Positively charged atom Cation
Aufbau Principle Electrons fill energy positions from lowest to highest.
Hund's Rule Electrons fill orbitals singly before pairing.
Atomic Radius Distance from nucleus to outer electron cloud region.
Electron charge _____ as we move to the right of periodic table. Decrease
Electrons charge _____ as you go down on the periodic table. Increases
Valence Electrons Outermost energy electrons; Involved in chemical reactions; Responsible for chemical nature of element.
Ionization Energy _____ across the periodic table. Increases
Ionization Energy ______ down the periodic table. Decreases
Metals have _____ electron affinity. Low (They lose electrons)
Nonmetals have _____ electron affinities. High (They gain electrons)
Isoelectronic Same # of electrons
Anion (-) is always (bigger/smaller) than its parent atom. Bigger (More electrons)
Cation (+) is always (bigger/smaller) than its parent atom. Smaller (More protons than electrons)
Properties of Metal High density, high melting point, conducts heat & electricity.
D Orbital 5 Orbitals
F Orbital 7 Orbitals
Created by: BboyTrue



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