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CHEM 2261 Exam 3

Exam 3 Crowe

QuestionAnswer
achiral a molecule or object that contains an element (a plane or a point) of symmetry; has a superimposable mirror image
anti addition an addition reaction in which the two added substituents add to opposite sides of the molecule
asymmetric center an atom that is bonded to four different substituents
chiral a molecule that has a non superimposable mirror image; an object with a right-handed and a left-handed form
cis-isomer the isomer with substituents on the same side of a cyclic structure, or the isomer with the hydrogens on the same side of a double bond
cis-trans isomers result from not being able to rotate about a carbon-carbon bond. They are also called geometric isomers or E,Z isomers.
diastereomer stereoisomers that are not enantiomers
enantiomer nonsuperimposable mirror-image molecule (chiral); each member is chiral (chirality is a property of an entire object or an entire molecule)
enantiomeric excess how much excess of one enantiomer is present in a mixture of a pair of enantiomers, expressed as a percentage
observed rotation the amount of rotation observed in a polarimeter
observed specific rotation the specific rotation measured for a particular sample
polarimeter an instrument that measures the rotation of the plane of polarization of plane-polarized light
R configuration an arrow drawn from the highest-priority group to the next priority group that goes in a clockwise direction
regioselective describes a reaction that leads to the preferential formation of one constitutional isomer over another
S configuration an arrow drawn from the highest-priority group to the next priority group that goes in a counterclockwise direction
specific rotation the amount of rotation that will be observed for a compound with a concentration of 1.0g/mL in a sample tube 1.0dm long
stereocenter an atom at which the interchange of two groups produces a stereoisomer
stereochemistry the field of chemistry that deals with the structure of molecules in three dimensions
stereoisomers isomers that differ in the way the atoms are arranged in space
stereoselective describes a reaction that leads to the preferential formation of one stereoisomer over another
stereospecific describes a reaction in which the reactant can exist as stereoisomers and each stereoisomeric reactant leads to a different stereoisomeric product
syn addition an addition reaction in which the two added substituents add to the same side of the molecule
trans isomer the isomer with substituents on the opposite sides of a cyclic structure, or the isomer with the hydrogens on the opposite sides of the double bond
acetylide ion the conjugate base of a terminal alkyne RC(triple bond)C-
aldehyde a compound with a carbonyl group that is bonded to an alkyl group and to a hydrogen (or bonded to two hydrogens)http://img.tfd.com/mosbycam/thumbs/500045-fx18.gif
alkylation reaction a reaction that adds an alkyl group to a reactant
alkyne a hydrocarbon that contains a carbon carbon triple bond
carbonyl group a carbon doubly bonded to an oxygen
alkylation reaction a reaction that adds an alkyl group to a reactant
alkyne a hydrocarbon that contains a carbon-carbon triple bond
carbonyl group a carbon doubly bonded to an oxygen
enol an alkene with an OH group bonded to one of the sp2 carbons
geminal dihalide an compound with two halogen atoms bonded to the same carbon
internal alkyne an alkyne with its triple bond not at the end of the carbon chain
keto-enol tautomers a ketone and its isomeric enol. The keto and enol tautomers differ only in the location of a double bond and a hydrogen
ketone a compound with a carbonyl group that is bonded to two alkyl groups
radical anion a species with a negative charge and an unpaired electron
retrosynthesis working backward (on paper) from a target molecule to available starting materials
tautomers consitutional isomers that are in rapid equilibrium; for example, keto and enol tautomers. they differ only in the location of a double bond and a hydrogen
terminal alkyne an alkyne with its triple bond at the end of the carbon chain
vinylic cation a compound with a positive charge on a vinylic carbon
vinylic radical a compound with an unpaired electron on a vinylic carbon
Created by: ajunea8