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biochem ch 7

biochem carbohydrates

dihydroxyacetone monosaccharide ketotriose
d-glyceraldehyde monosaccharide aldotriose
most common monosaccharide hexoses
d-glucose aldohexose
d-fructose ketohexose
d-ribose and 2-deoxy-d-ribose aldopentose
D and L are defined in referece to the configuration of the chiral carbon farthest from the carbonyl group in glyceraldehyde
in nature most monosaccharides are D OR L d
d-mannose aldohexose
d-galactose aldohexose
what determins D or L last chiral center(-OH) fartest away from carboxyl group. where the OH is for us
Rib Ribose pentose aldose
Glc Glucose hexose aldose
Man Mannose hexose aldose
Gal Galactose hexose aldose
Glyceraldehyde triose aldose
dhydroxyacetone triose ketose
Fru Fructose hexose Ketose
sugar that differ only in their configuration at one chiral cneter epimer
most sugar form rings by joing a carbony and alcohol group to to get hemiacetals hemiketals
pyranoses 6 member ring with different conformation 2 chair and boat
furanoses 5 member ring
anomers monosaccharides differeing only in their conFIGURation at the hemiacetal/hemiketal carbon alpha beta
mutarotation interconversion of anomers in aqueious solution at equilibrium (some linear)
hexoses derivative diff structure differ groups attacted and in different placesn-acetyl-b-d-glucosamine
haworth perspectives a-d glucopyroanose b-d-glucopyranose a-d and b-d fructofuranose
howorth perspective show stereochemistry of ring forms of monosaccharides there are different conformation of d-pyranoses adn d-furanoses alpha and beta not different configurations
what two polysaccaride are for storage starch and glycogen
in plants and anomeric carbon is in the alapha configurationo starch
unbranched glucose polymer with alapha 1->4 linkage amylose
alpha 1->4 linkage branched every 24-30 branched at alpha 1-6 amylopectin
alpha1 ->4 linkage branched 8-12 using alpha 1-6 glycogen
most abundant polysaccharide in nature cellulose
an unbranched polymer of glucose monomers the anomeric carbon is in the beta configuration cellulose
unbranched polymer of n-acetylglucosamine chitin
2nd most abundant polysacch chitin
two advantage of storing as polymers rather than monomers osmolarity and conc. gradient or thermodynamic the insoluable polymer glycogen
advantage of branching quicker degradation by enzymes that attack only non-reducing sugars
two heteropolymers peptidoglycans and glycosaminoglycans
hyloranate, chnodron, keratin, heprin are what type of structural heterpolymer glycosaminolgycans
the two heteropolymer have what in common reapeating diaccharides
which polymer has x-links peptidoglycans
found in bateria cell wal peptidoglycans
foudn in fungi cell wall chitin
homo and heter or storage, structural or both homo both and heter just struct
what two polysacc are both polymers of glucose monomers cellulose and amylose cellulose has beta and amylose has alpha though
what are the four types of glycoconjugates proteoglycans, glycoproteins, glycolipids and lipopolysaccharides
what glycoconjugate is made up of glycosaminoglycans and protein proteoglycans
what glycoconjugate is made up of protein and carbohydrate gycoproteins
what glycoconjugate is made up of membrance lipid and oligosaccharide glycolipids
what two places can you find a proteoglycan cell surface or in ECM
structure componet of proteoglycans one or more glycosaminoglycan chains covalently bound to a core protein
what can absorb/release large amounts of water and function as shock absorbers (repeating units and core protein proteoglycan aggregates *absorb water*
glycoproteins are made up of one or more oligosaccharides
which glycoconjagate's carbohydrate components are smaller and more sturctually diverse than proteoglycans gycoproteins
what have many large carbonhydrate components and not a variety proteoglycans
where can you find a glycoprotein on cell surface or secreted into ECM
hormones and lg's are which glycoconjugate glycoproteins
what glycoconjugate is made of a lipid convalently bound to oligosaccharides glycolipids structure
which glycoconjugate is often the binding site for proteins such as blood group determinants glycolipids
dominant surgace feature of gram-negative bacteria lipopolysaccharides lipid with sugar
prime target of anitbodies is which glycoconjugate lipopolysaccharides
lipid in CM convalently bond to oligsaccharide on the outer surface to mark cell glycolipid
how are blood group determinants different the difference of one monosaccaride. you either have the enzyme or not to have ability to add monosacchride
lectins are _____ not carbohydrate proteins
proteins that specifically and strongly bind carbohydrates are lectins
what serves a wide variety of cell-cell recognition and adhesion processes lectins
selectins are a type of lectin found on a cell that will recognize a oligosacharide of another cell (blank)
what part of the cell does a virus bacteria or toxin recognize and attack the oligosaccaride portion of the glycolipid or glycoprotein toxin attack glycolipid
Created by: lainylaina