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# Chem Ch.5

### chapter 5

energy level | the specific energies an electron in an atom or other system can have |

quantum mechanical model | the modern description primarily mathematical of the behavior of the electrons in atoms |

atomic orbital | a mathematical expression describing the probability of finding an electron at various locations usually represented by the region of space around the nucleus where there is a high probability of finding an electron |

electron configurations | the arrangement of electrons of an atom in its ground state into various orbitals around the nuclei of atoms |

Aufbau principle | the rule that electrons occupy the orbitals of lowest energy first |

Pauli exclusion principle | an atomic orbital may describe at most two e electrons each with opposite spin direction |

hund's rule | electrons occupy orbitals of the same energy in a way that makes the number or elect with the same spin direction as large as possible |

electromagnetic radiation | energy waves that travel in vacuum at a speed of 3.00 x 10^8 m/s includes radio waves microwaves infrared waves visible light ultraviolet waves x-rays and gamma rays |

amplitude | the hight of a wave's crest |

wavelength | the distance between adjacent crests of a wave |

frequency | the number of wave cycles that pass a given point per unit of time frequency and wavelength are inversely proportional to each other |

hertz | the unit of frequency equal to one cycle per second |

spectrum | wavelengths of visible light that are separated when a beam of light passes through a prism range of wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation |

atomic emission spectrum | the pattern formed when light passes through a prism or diffraction grating to separate it into the different frequencies of light it contains |

ground satte | the lowest possible energy of an atom described by quantum mechanics |

photons | a quantum of light a discrete bundle of electromagnetic energy that interacts with matter similarly to particles |

Heisenberg uncertainty principle | it is impossible to know exactly both the velocity and the position of a particle at the same time |

Electromagnetic radiation | C= wavelength X frequency .........C= The speed of light 3.0X10^8 |

Directly related | frequency and energy |

Planck Constant | E=n h v.......... H=Planck's constant= 6.626x10^-34 Js |

Energy level | n=1-2e- n=2-8e- n=3-18e- n=4-32e- n=5-50e- n=6-72e- n=7-98e- |

SubLevels | s= spherical p=peanut d=double peanut f=flower |

Orbital | s=1 p=3 d=5 f=7 (Think All are ODD numbers) |

quantum | the amount of energy needed to move an electron from one energy level to another |