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Semester 1 Chem exam

Combined Tests

QuestionAnswer
Which of the following is not one of the common states of matter? Solids, Plasma, Liquid, Gas, or sublime? Plasma
A pure substance which can be decomposed into two or more substances is a(n) --------. Compound
Which of the following is one of the classes of pure substances? Compound, Homogeneous mixture, solution, heterogeneous mixture, oil and water. Compound
Which of the following elements is a metal? Ca, Na, Mg, K, or all of these? All of these
Which of the following sets is a list of the symbols for an element and a compound? (
Which of the following is not one of the common states of matter? Solids, Plasma, Liquid, Gas, or sublime? Plasma
A pure substance which can be decomposed into two or more substances is a(n) --------. Compound
Which of the following is one of the classes of pure substances? Compound, Homogeneous mixture, solution, heterogeneous mixture, oil and water. Compound
Which of the following elements is a metal? Ca, Na, Mg, K, or all of these? All of these
Which of the following sets is a list of the symbols for an element and a compound? (in that order?) A) Mg, CO B) CO, CO2 C) CO, Co D) H2O2, P E) NaCL, Cl A) Mg, CO
An example of a homogeneous mixture is A) Oil in water, B) a salt water solution C) dirt D) A pure substance E) A salt crystal E, A salt crystal.
Which of the following is not a pure substance? Pure gold, Clean air, refined sugar, Distilled water, elemental oxygen Clean Air
Is melting a physical or chemical change? Physical change
A phase change from solid to gas is called what? Sublimation
In a neutral atom, there is an equal number of what? Electrons and protons.
Rutherfords fould experiment provied evidence for what atomic feature? the Nucleus
What is the symbol for a neutral atom with 7 protons, 7 electrons and 8 neutrons? N
What has the longest wavelenght? Radio waves.
What is the number of valence electrons in phosphorus? 5
Is this part of Dalton's atomic theory? Some atoms may emit nuclear radiation. No. Daltons theory states matter is composed of indestructible particles called atoms, all atoms of a given element are alike, elements and compounds are composed of definite arrays of atoms, and all atoms of different elements are different.
What metal was used as the foil in Rutherford's famous scattering experiment? Gold
Two atoms which have the same atomic number but different mass numbers are called what? Isotopes
Which are the most abundant gases in the atmosphere? Nitrogen and oxygen
The atmospheric layer in which is found the air we breathe is troposphere
What source is responsible fothe greatest NOx emissions in the United States? fossil fuel combustion
What is not considered an air pollutant? the Ozone, nitric oxide, sulfur dioxide, or water vapor? Water vapor
What is the primary source of carbon monoxide? the automobile
Why are small particulates in the atmopshere dangerous to people? They can enter into and lodge in very small crevices of the lungs and cause concentrated abrasive injury.
How is commercial nitrogen produced? Refrigeration of air and fractional distillation
Why is carbon monoxide toxic to mammals? it inhibits oxygen binding to hemoglobin
True of false. The ionic compoung NaCl is formed when electrons are shared. False
What is oxidation? The interaction between oxygen molecules and all the different substances they may contact, from metal to living tissue. Loss of at least one electron when two or more substances interact.
What is reduction? reduction is when an element or compound gains an electron. Therefore it is reduced.
How to balance a redox reaction To balance redox reactions, assign oxidation numbers to the reactants and products to determine how many moles of each species are needed to conserve mass and charge. First, separate the equation into two half-reactions, the oxidation portion and the redu
Common uses of redox reactions? Burn natural gas or burn sugars in our body
What is hyrdophobic Doesn't like water or repels it, and doesn't mix well with it.
What is hydrophilic? Having a tendency to mix with, dissolve in, or be wetted by water.
What is a colloid? A colloid is a solution that has particles ranging between 1 and 1000 nanometers in diameter, yet are still able to remain evenly distributed throughout the solution. A colloid is also known as a colloidal dispersion because the substances remain disperse
What is an emulsifier? In emulsifier is a chemical or a product that keeps two liquids mixed together... For example, water and oil will separate to form two distinct layers.
What are ABS detergents? ABS detergents were some of the earlier synthetic detergents. They were much cheaper to produce than sodium lauryl sulfate, one of the very first synthetic detergents.
What are household chemicals? Air freshners: contain formaldehyde and petroleum Antifreeze: ethylene glycol bleach: sodium hypochlorite
What are polymers? Polymers consist of many repeating monomer units in long chains.Many monomers are alkenes which react by addition to their unsaturated double bonds.
What are condensed polymers? some atoms of the monomer don't end up in the polymer. The polymer has less mass than the original monomers, so its condensed.
What is vulcanization? process of treating rubber or rubberlike materials with sulphur at great heat to improve elasticity and strength or to harden them.
What are lipids? lipids are molecular organic compounds, composed largely of carbon and hydrogen, that are essential for cell growth. Lipids are non-soluble in water and combine with carbohydrates and proteins to form the majority of all plant and animal cells.
What are carbohyrdates? Carbohydrates, or saccharides, are sugars and starches, which provide energy for humans and animals, and cellulose which make up many plant structures. There are two types of carbohydrates, simple, or monosaccharides and complex, or polysaccharides.
What are proteins? Any of a class of nitrogenous organic compounds that consist of large molecules composed of one or more long chains of amino acids and are an essential part of all living organisms
What are some uses of nucleic acid? growth, repair and reproduction all rely on nucleic acid for direction and support.It is found primarily in DNA and RNA molecules. It stores genetic information and regulates cellular processes and functions.
Examples of nucleic acid? DNA and RNA
Define Saturated Holding as much water or moisture as can be absorbed; thoroughly soaked.
Define unsaturated solution A solution that can still dissolve more solute
What are poly/mono unsaturated fats? "Poly” means many unsaturated chemical bonds and “mono” means one unsaturated chemical bond. May decrease blood cholestorol level.
What is glucose? Glucose is a simple sugar that provides the body with its primary source of energy. This type of sugar comes from digesting carbohydrates into a chemical that the body can easily convert to energy.
What is fructose? a simple monosaccharide found in many plants. It is one of the three dietary monosaccharides, along with glucose and galactose, that are absorbed directly into the bloodstream during digestion.
What are polysaccharides? Polysaccharides are chains of sugar units that form in configurations from tens to thousands of units long. They comprise the carbohydrate storage units for plants and animals, and can also have structural roles in plants, fungi, insects, and crustaceans
Protein functions? Enzymes - are proteins that facilitate biochemical reactions. They are often referred to as catalysts because they speed up chemical reactions. Structural Proteins - are fibrous and stringy and provide support
What are amino acids? Amino acids band together in chains to form the stuff from which life is born. This is a two-step process: first, they get together and form peptides or polypeptides, and it is from these groupings that proteins are made.
What is the primary structure of proteins? The primary structure of proteins is the sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide chain, linked through peptide bonds, that form the covalent backbone of the proteins. Determines biological functions.
What is the secondarty structure of proteins? They are held together by hydrogen bonds. organised into regular structures known as alpha-helices (alpha-helixes) and beta-pleated sheets.
What is the tertiary structure of proteins? whole chain (including the secondary structures) folds itself into its final 3-dimensional shape. Held together by "R" groups.
What is the quaternary structure of proteins? several amino acid chains fromthe tertiary structures fold together in a blob.They wind, entwined, in and out of each other. Some of the most famous protein blobs are hemoglobin in human red blood cells and the photosystems in plant chloroplasts.
What is insulin? Insulin is a hormone that is produced by the pancreas and that regulates the level of glucose — a simple sugar that provides energy — in the blood. It allows people's bodies to store the glucose so that it can be used as needed.
What is alpha-keratin? found in sheep wool. Springy nature is because of the composition of alpha helices that are coiled around and cross-linked to each other through cystine residues. Chemical reduction of the cystine in keratin to form cysteines breaks the cross-links.
What is DNA? DNA is a nucleic acid present in the cells of all living organisms. It encodes the genetic material that determines what an organism will develop into. DNA also performs a number of other functions which are critical to life
What is RNA? (RNA) is a chain of nucleotides present in the cells of all life. This chain has a number of important functions for living organisms, ranging from the regulation of gene expression to assistance with copying genes.
What are bases? A base is a chemical species that donates electrons or hydroxide ions or that accepts protons.
What are codons? Three-nucleotide sequence on messenger RNA that codes for a single amino acid.
Radon in the air arises from what? Radioactive decay of uranium
Which type of radiation is the most penetrating? Gamma
The nuclear reaction that changes one element into another element is called a what? Transmutation
What is the "stable" nucleaus produced at the end ofthe decay steps in the uranium decay series? Lead
Elements with atomic number greater than 83 (beyond bismuth, Bi) are what? Unstable
What is true about fusion? They require very high temperatures, produces fewer radioactive byproducts, occurs in a plasma of charged particles, and occurs in the sun.
A major, unsolved problem with nuclear energy is what to do with nuclear waste.
Radioactive Carbon-14 comes from cosmic radiation interacting with carbon in the atmosphere.
All combustion reactions of fossil fuels give off energy
A compound containing 7 carbon atoms is heptane
The fuel identified as M85 is a fuel mixture of 85% methanol and 15% gasoline
What are the bond angles around the carbon atoms in alkanes? 109.5 degrees
What term is used to descrive the amount of energy released from burning? Heat of Combustion
How many bonds do alkanes have? Single Bonds
Gasoline is a mixture of what? C5-C12 hydrocarbons
The complete combustion of a hydrocarbon yields what two compounds? CO2 and H2O
Do alkanes contain oxygen? No
Ethylene glycol is the main ingredient in what? Antifreeze
The odor in many fruits is due to the presence of what? Esters
Vulcanized rubber which was first produced by Goodyear in 1839 contains what? Short chains of sulfur atoms as crosslinks between polymers
Most reinforced plastics are polymers containing what? Glass fibers
In a condensation polymerixation, what happens to form the polymer chain? Small molecules such as water are split out and monomers are linked.
The oxidation of secondary alcohols produces what? Ketones
The odor of decaying flesh is due to the presence of what? amines
Which carboxylic acid is known as vinegar? acetic
Which polymer material occurs naturally? Latex rubber
What is R-NH3 Amine
What is R-COH Alcohol
What is R-O-R' Ether
What is R-COOH Carboxylic Acid
Created by: nikkiw0102