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Chapter 14

chemical reaction when substances break apart or combine to form 1 or more new substances
what happens in a chemical reaction new substances form when bonds break and new bonds form, the chemical properties of the new substances are different from those of the original substance
precipiate solid substance that forms in a solution
what are signs that a chemical reaction has occurred production of a gas, production of a precipiate, giving off of energy, color change
what kind of change is boiling water physical change
what must happen in a chemical change a new substance must with different chemical properties must be made
when do chemical reactions happen when chemical bbonds are broken
chemical bond force that holds 2 atoms together in a molecue
what happens to chemical bonds during a chemical reaction some break, new bonds form to produce a new substance
hydrogen and chlorine react to produce hydrogen chloride, what bonds are broken and what bonds are formed during this reaction bond between he hydrogen atoms break and the bond between the chlorine atoms break, new bonds between hydrogen and chlorine atoms form
chemical formula shows which elements are found in a substance, also, it shows how many atoms of each element are found in a molecule of a substance
what are 2 things that are shown by a chemical formla th number of atoms of an element in a formula and which elements those are
subscript a number that tells you how many atoms of an element are in a molecule
what does it mean when there is no subscript in a n element's chemical symbol there is only 1 of the element
mono 1
di 2
tri 3
tetra 4
penta 5
hexa 6
hepta 7
octa 8
nona 9
deca 10
what does it mean if the name of a compound contains the name of a metal and a nonmetal it is an ionic compound
chemical equation something that uses chemical symbols and formulas as a short way to show what happens in a chemical reaction
what does a chemical equation show atoms are only rearranged in a chemical reaction, no atoms are gained or lost
reactants starting materials in a chemical reaction
products substances that form during the reaction
why is it important to check and make sure your chemical formulas are correct if you use the wrong formula or symbol, then the equation will not describe the right reacton
law of conservation of mass states that mass can't be gained or lost during a chemical reaction
why is the chemical equaton always balanced the number of reactants and products is always equal
coefficient a number placed in front of a chemical formula
how do you use coefficients to balance an equation count the number of atoms, add coefficients to the different reactants and products to get the reactants to equal the product
what can't be changed when balancing a chemical equation subscripts
what 4 groups do most reactions fall into synthesis reaction, decomposition reaction, sigle-displacement reaction, double-displacement reaction
synthesis reaction reaction in which 2 or more substances combine to form a new compound
decomposition reaction reaction in which a single compound breaks down to form 2 or more simpler substances
single-displacement reaction reaction in which one element replaces another element in a compound
what are the products of a single-displacement reaction a new compound and a replaced element
if iron replaces copper in Cu(NO3)2, is it more or less reactive than copper more
double-displacement reaction reaction in which 2 ions from 2 different compounds trade places
which 2 reaction types are the opposite of each other synthesis and decomposition
why can the product of a synthesis reaction never be an element elements and compounds are being added together, not subtracted
when 2 clear solutions are poured together and a blue precipiate forms, what type of reaction has taken place and why double-displacement reaction because 1 of the products is often a precipiate
what is part of all chemical reactions chemical energy
how do you find out if more energy is absorbed or released in the reaction by comparing the chemical energy of the products to the chemical energy of the reactants
exothermic reaction reaction that gves off energy
what are the ways thatexothermic reactions can realease enegy light, heat, and electricity
endothermic reaction reaction that takes in energy
what are the ways endothermic reactions can take in energy light, heat. and electricity
law of conservation of energy law that states energy can't be created or destroyed
kinetic energy energy of motion
rate of reaction how fast reactants break apart and products form
what must happen to reactant particles for a reaction to occur they must collide
activation energy the smallest amount of nergy that molecules need to react
for an endothermic reaction, do reactantsor products have more energy products
what 4 factorsaffect the rate of a reaction temperature, surface area, concentration, inhibitors or catalysts
how do higher temperatures affecta reaction rate it speeds it up
what is surface area the amount of exposed surface of a substance
what happens if you increase the surface area of solid reactants it increases the rate of reaction
what is concentration the amount of 1 substance dissolve in another
what doesa high concentration of reactants cause a faster rate of reaction
inhibitor substance that slows down or stops a chemical reaction
what are preservatives inhibitors that are added to foods to slow down the growth of bacteria and fungi
catalyst a substance that speeds up reaction without being permanently changed
why is a catalyst not a reaction it isn't permanently changed
how does a catalyst work it lowers the activation energy of a reaction
what happens to energy when a chemical bond forms it is realeased
what happens when a chemical bond is broken it is gained
how does chewing your food well speed up the reactions in your digestive system it partially breaks it down
Created by: jeremyb