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Chem 111- Unit 3

ammonium NH4+
hydronium H3O+
acetate CH3COO-
hydroxide OH-
chlorate ClO3-
perchlorate ClO4-
nitrate NO3-
permanganate MnO4-
carbonate CO3 2-
hydrogen carbonate HCO3-
dichromate Cr2O7 2-
phosphate PO4 3-
sulfate SO4 2-
empirical formula defines the smallest whole number ratio of the atoms (usually ionic)
molecular formula accounts for all atoms present in the molecule (usually covalent)
structural formula shows atoms and bonding pattern
diatomic molecules hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, halogens
1 mole 6.022E10^23 things
mass percent the amount of mass each atom contributes to the total mass of the unit
which atoms can have an expanded octet? anything in period 3 or higher
determining best Lewis structure (4) -smaller formal charges -fewer formal charges -more negative charge for more electronegative atoms (v/v) -*some believe the octet rule is always best
formal charge the charge on an atom based on the drawn Lewis structure (# valence e's - assigned e's)
electronegativity the relative ability of a bonded atom to attract electrons (top right= highest)
resonance structures different ways of representing the same molecule w/ different bonding patterns
electron delocalization electrons delocalized due to different possible arrangements of single and double bonds
bond order (bonding pairs)/(positions)
atoms that may have less than an octet Be & B
molecules that may have an unpaired electron free radicals- NO, NO2
geometry & angle- 2 atoms around central linear, 180
geometry & angle- 3 atoms around central trigonal planar, 120
geometry & angle- 4 atoms around central tetrahedral, 109.5
geometry & angle- 5 atoms around central trigonal bipyramidal, 90 (axial) & 120 (equatorial)
geometry & angle- 6 atoms around central octahedral, 90
VSEPR (valence shell electron pair repulsion) electrons are located as far apart as possible to minimize repulsions
2 outer atoms, 1 lone pair bent, <120
3 outer atoms, 1 lone pair trigonal pyramidal, <109.5
2 outer atoms, 2 lone pairs bent, <109.5
4 outer atoms, 1 lone pair seesaw, <90, <120 **equatorial position
3 outer atoms, 2 lone pairs t-shaped, <90 **equatorial position
2 outer atoms, 3 lone pairs linear, 180 **equatorial position
5 outer atoms, 1 lone pair square pyramid, <90
4 outer atoms, 2 lone pairs square planar, 90
d hybrid orbital used when there are <4 atoms around the central atom
lone pairs & orbitals paired in hybrid orbitals
double bond type(s) 1 pi bond, 1 sigma bond
triple bond type(s) 2 pi bonds, 1 sigma bond
central atom w/ formal charge add/subtract an electron
sigma bonds end-to-end overlaps of orbitals
pi bonds side-to-side overlaps of orbitals
Created by: melaniebeale