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Stack #1056287

A fertilized egg is called a zygote
harmful chemicals or viruses that can be transferred from a mother to her developing fetus are called teratogens
Research on the perceptual abilities of newborns indicates that htey look more at a facelike image than at a bull's eye pattern
a child whose mother drank heavily when she was pregnant is at heightened risk of being born with the physical and cognitive abnormalities of fetal alchohol syndrome
a teratogen is an substance thta can cross teh plaental barrier and harm an unborn child
When pregnant rats drink alchohol, their young offspring later display an liking for the odor of alchohol
babies are born with several reflexes for getting food. one of these is to open the mouth in search of a nipple when touched on the cheek
Nutrients and oxygen are transferred from a mother to her developing fetus through the placenta
The symptoms of fetal alchohol syndrome are most likely to include brain abnormalities
The branch of psychology that systematically focuses on the physical,cognitive, and social changes that occur throughout the life cycle is called developmental psychology
A stage theory of development was advanced by all of these people: piaget, erkson, kohlberg
The stabilty of peronality traits is greater among adults than among children
Pschologists who view the developmental process as a sequence of distinct stages generally believe that_______is(are) the same for everyone. the order but not the timing of the stages
For the unborn children of mothers who smoke heavily, nicotine is a teratogen
Mary believes that cognitive development is a matter of gradual and almost imperceptible changes over time. Her viewpoint is most directly relevant to the issue of continuity or stages
Stage theories of adult development are most likely to be criticized for exaggeratng the predictabilty of development
Ross believes that personality development is a matter of sudden qualitative changes at various turning points in the life span. His viewpoint is more directly relevant to the issue of continuity of stages
Researchers who emphasize learning and experience tend to view development as a cognitive process,while those who emphasize maturation often view deelopment as a social process
Sierra, a 28-year-old heroin addict, is pregnant. her baby will be born A heroin addict
Questions about the extent to which maladaptive habits learned in childhood can be overcome in adulthood are ost directly relevant to the issue of nature or nuture
Questions about whether anxious children will grow up to be either fearful or relaxed adults most directly highlight the issue of stability or change.
As boys with explosive tempers grow older, they are especially likely to have difficulty maintaining good jobs and happy marriages. This fact is most relevant to the issue of stability or change
Dr. Birkin's major research interest is the development of motor skills in children. It is most likely that Dr. Birkin is a ________ psychologist. developmental
Darlene smoked heavily during the entire 9 months of her pregnancy. Her newborn baby will most likely be underweight.
One of the major concerns of developmental psychology centers around the issue of continuity or stages.
Dr. Matsuko's major research interest is the long-term effects of child-rearing practices on the psychological adjustment of offspring. It is most likely that Dr. Matsuko is a(n) ________ psychologist. developmental
Theories of human development have been most susceptible to criticism for overemphasizing discrete age-linked stages.
Five-year-olds who were surprised to discover that a Band-Aids box contained pencils were able to anticipate their friend's false belief about the contents of the box. This best illustrates that the children had developed a theory of mind.
Which of the following factors contributes most positively to the development of secure attachment between human infants and their mothers? responsive parenting
When people recognize the inaccuracy of ethnic stereotypes and revise their beliefs, they are demonstrating the process of accommodation.
Five-year-old Tammy mistakenly believes that her short, wide glass contains less soda than her brother's tall, narrow glass. Actually, both glasses contain the same amount of soda. This illustrates that Tammy lacks the concept of conservation.
Chloe can clearly sense when her sister's teasing is intended to be friendly fun or a hostile put-down. This best illustrates that Chloe has developed a(n) theory of mind.
According to Piaget, accommodation refers to adjusting current schemas to make sense of new experiences.
Nageeb thought all nurses were young females until a middle-aged male nurse took care of him. Nageeb's altered conception of a “nurse” illustrates the process of accommodation.
Piaget claimed that children understand the world primarily by observing the effects of their own actions on other people, objects, and events during the ________ stage. formal operational
Adjusting current schemas to make sense of new information is called accommodation.
Piaget is best known for his interest in the process of ________ development. cognitive
Infant motor development is typically characterized by individual differences in ________ of the major developmental milestones the age-related timing but not the sequence
Autism is a disorder characterized by deficient social interaction and an impaired theory of mind.
According to Piaget, a person first comprehends that division is the reverse of multiplication during the ________ stage. concrete operational
Interpreting new experiences in terms of existing schemas is called assimilation.
In Piaget's theory, conservation is to egocentrism as the ________ stage is to the ________ stage. concrete operational; preoperational
Psychologist Simon Baron-Cohen has proposed that autism is indicative of an inborn Psychologist Simon Baron-Cohen has proposed that autism is indicative of an inborn male systemizing tendency.
A critical period is a phase during which certain events have a particularly strong impact on development
Infants develop a fear of strangers at about 8 months of age because they can't assimilate unfamiliar faces into their Question options: self-concept. attachments. schemas. theory of mind. schemas
Today's earlier female sexual maturation is especially likely among overweight girls in father-absent homes.
Piaget is to cognitive development as Kohlberg is to ________ development. moral
“If you're really concerned about the rights and dignity of women,” Yigal asked his older brother, “how can you justify buying pornographic magazines?” Yigal's question indicates that he is in the ________ stage of development. formal operational
Which of the following best describes adolescent self-esteem? It falls through the early teen years and rises during the late teen years.
A student who does not cheat on tests because he doesn't want to violate classroom rules is in Kohlberg's ________ stage. conventional
According to Erikson, adolescents who are unable to develop a sense of identity experience role confusion.
An example of a primary sex characteristic is a woman's ovaries.
Which of the following is an example of a secondary sex characteristic? male facial hair
The speed of neurotransmission in the frontal lobe increases during adolescence due to the growth of myelin.
Erikson suggested that the capacity to form close, loving relationships in young adulthood depended on achieving a sense of identity.
Henry disapproves of stealing jelly beans from his sister's Easter basket because he thinks his mother will spank him if he does. Henry best represents a ________ morality. preconventional
During adolescence, maturation of the ________ lags behind maturation of the ________. frontal lobe; limbic system
According to Erikson, trust is to infancy as identity is to adolescence
Piaget is to cognitive development as Erikson is to ________ development. moral
As individuals progress through their teen years into early adulthood, their self-concepts typically become more positive.
Most 20-year-olds outperform most 70-year-olds on video games due to age-related differences in information-processing speed
Emotional instability has been found to be similar among adults at all of these ages.
The term social clock refers to the culturally preferred time to leave home, marry, have children, and retire.
Lewis is a 70-year-old retired college professor. In contrast to when he was 30, he now probably does not hear as well.
Professor Appledorn emphasizes that whether people flourish in later life depends on a continuous interaction among their inborn temperaments, their personal relationships, and their mental expectations regarding the aging process. The professor's viewpoi a biopsychosocial approach.
According to Erikson, older adults can most effectively cope with the prospect of their own death if they have achieved a sense of integrity.
Compared with younger adults, older adults take ________ time to solve perceptual puzzles and ________ time to remember names. more; less
Research on people's feelings of satisfaction with their lives indicates that people over 65 years of age report being slightly happier than adolescents.
The popular idea that terminally ill and bereaved people go through predictable stages, such as denial, anger, and so forth is widely supported by research.
As people progress into old age, their disease-fighting immune systems become more effective in resisting upper respiratory flu than in resisting pneumonia.
Compared with the amygdala in young adults, the amygdala in older adults shows diminishing activity in response to negative events.
As people progress through late adulthood, they typically experience a slight decrease in brain weight.
Rising divorce rates over the past 40 years are partly a consequence of increasing marital expectations and the increasing economic independence of women.
In recall and recognition tests of memory for recently learned material, older adults are more likely than young adults to have difficulty recalling meaningless material.
When adults of varying ages were tested for their memory of a recently learned list of 24 words, the older adults demonstrated a decline in recall but not in recognition.
When asked to recall the one or two most important events over the last half century, older adults tend to name events that occurred when they were between ________ years of age. 10 and 30
Researchers have discovered that the midlife transition between early and middle adulthood is characterized by unusually high levels of job dissatisfaction and career change.
The ability to learn a new computer software program is to ________ as knowledge of state capitals is to ________. fluid intelligence; crystallized intelligence
An integrated understanding of successful aging in terms of appropriate nutrition, family support, and an optimistic outlook is most clearly provided by a biopsychosocial approach.
As adults age, they show the greatest declines in fluid intelligence and in the memory capacities needed to recall recently presented information.
Menopause involves a decline in fertility.
In shopping for a new stereo, you discover that you cannot differentiate between the sounds of models X and Y. The difference between X and Y is below your difference threshold.
Green light is shorter in wavelength than red light.
When you look at a vertical line, you are probably activating different ________ than when you look at a horizontal line. feature detectors
________ processing refers to how the physical characteristics of stimuli influence their interpretation. Bottom-up
Certain stroke victims report seeing nothing when shown a series of sticks, yet they are able to correctly report whether the sticks are vertical or horizontal. This best illustrates blindsight.
The amount of light entering the eye is regulated by the iris.
Compared with rods, cones are less sensitive to dim light and more sensitive to fine detail.
Interpreting new sensory information within the framework of a past memory illustrates top-down processing
Concluding her presentation on sensation and perception, Kelly notes that sensation and perception blend into one continuous process
Simultaneously analyzing distinct subunits of information received by different areas of the brain is known as parallel processing
Weber's law is relevant to an understanding of difference thresholds.
Heather Sellers suffers from prosopagnosia and is unable to recognize her own face in a photograph. Her difficulty stems from a deficiency in top-down processing.
The central focal point in the retina where cones are heavily concentrated is known as the fovea.
The ability to process information automatically and without conscious awareness of doing so is best illustrated by blindsight.
The ability to almost instantly recognize a familiar face best illustrates the value of parallel processing.
The ability to simultaneously recognize the color, shape, size, and speed of an oncoming automobile best illustrates parallel processing.
Subliminally presented stimuli can sometimes be consciously perceived.
Which of the following is true? The absolute threshold for any stimulus varies somewhat.
Perception is the process by which sensory input is organized and interpreted.
Giulio's bag of marbles is twice as heavy as Jim's. If it takes 5 extra marbles to make Jim's bag feel heavier, it will take 10 extra marbles to make Giulio's bag feel heavier. This best illustrates Weber's law.
Ms. Shields, a recent stroke victim, cannot consciously perceive the large book on the coffee table in front of her. Yet, when urged to identify the book, she correctly reads aloud the printed title on the book cover. Her response best illustrates blindsight
People's response to subliminal priming indicates that they are capable of processing information without any conscious awareness of doing so.
Shape constancy refers to our perception of an object as unchanging in shape regardless of changes in the distance from which we view the object
Distant trees were located closer to the top of the artist's canvas than were the flowers at the bottom of the canvas. The artist was clearly using the distance cue known as relative height.
Although he was wearing a pair of glasses that shifted the apparent location of objects 20 degrees to his right, Lars was soon able to play tennis very effectively. This best illustrates the value of perceptual adaptation.
Although several students in the classroom are talking loudly, Jim's attention is focused only on what his girlfriend is saying. In this instance, the girlfriend's voice is a figure.
Depth perception that uses information transmitted to only one eye depends on monocular cues.
Retinal disparity refers to the somewhat different images our two eyes receive of the same object.
The principle of continuity refers to the perceptual tendency to group stimuli into smooth, uninterrupted patterns.
Perceiving objects as unchanging even as illumination and retinal images change is known as perceptual constancy.
Stereotypes are mental conceptions that can strongly influence the way we interpret the behaviors of individuals belonging to specific racial or ethnic groups. A stereotype is most similar to perceptual set.
Figure is to ground as ________ is to ________. flower; grass
Although Sue Yen sees her chemistry professor several times a week, she didn't recognize the professor when she saw her in the grocery store. This best illustrates the importance of context effects
The perceptual tendency to fill in gaps in order to perceive disconnected parts as a whole object is called closure
As we move, viewed objects cast changing shapes on our retinas, although we do not perceive the objects as changing. This is part of the phenomenon of perceptual constancy
Holding two index fingers in front of the eyes can create the perception of a floating finger sausage. This best illustrates the effect of retinal disparity.
After some practice, Carol was able to read books while holding them upside down. This best illustrates perceptual adaptation.
The depth cue that occurs when we watch stable objects at different distances as we are moving is relative motion.
The organization of two-dimensional retinal images into three-dimensional perceptions is called depth perception.
When two familiar objects of equal size cast unequal retinal images, the object that casts the smaller retinal image will be perceived as being more distant than the other object.
The philosopher John Locke believed that people learn to perceive the world through experience
People are more likely to perceive a figure and ground illustration as reversible if they are told it is reversible. This best illustrates the importance of interposition.
The philosopher Immanuel Kant emphasized that perception depends on innate ways of organizing sensory experience
As the airplane descended for a landing, the pilot saw several beautiful islands that appeared to float in a vast expanse of blue ocean water. In this instance, the ocean is a ground
Lenore had been blind from birth. Immediately after corrective eye surgery, she could visually perceive figure-ground relationships. This fact would serve to support the position advanced by Kant
A concept that helps us to interpret ambiguous sensations is called a(n) schema.
Rules for organizing stimuli into coherent groups were first identified by Gestalt psychologists.
The apparent narrowing of a river as it flows directly away from you into the distance best illustrates the depth cue known as linear perspective.
Under foggy weather conditions, car drivers are especially likely to overestimate the distance of approaching vehicles. This best illustrates that distance perception is influenced by continuity.
People were shown the same top half of a photographed face paired with two different bottom halves of photographed faces. They were especially likely to recognize that the top halves of the faces were identical if they were deprived of visual experience during infancy.
After hearing that Bryce had served a prison sentence, Janet began to perceive his friendly behavior as insincere and manipulative. This best illustrates the impact of perceptual set.
As Sherod walked away from the camera, the image of his body filled a smaller area of the television screen. Nevertheless, viewers did not perceive Sherod as suddenly shrinking. This illustrates size constancy
If two identical objects are equally distant from a viewer, the brighter object appears to be closer.
Interposition is a cue for depth perception in which closer objects obstruct our view of distant objects.
Alexis is addicted to drugs. The room in which she usually takes them is likely to become a(n) ________ for drug cravings CS
Male Japanese quail became sexually aroused by a red light that was repeatedly associated with the presentation of a female quail. The sexual arousal triggered by the red light was a CR.
The most crucial ingredient in all learning is experience.
Monica's psychotherapist reminds her so much of her own father that she has many of the same mixed emotional reactions to him that she has to her own dad. Her reactions to her therapist best illustrate the importance of generalization.
If a shock always is preceded by a tone, and then sometimes also is preceded by a light that accompanies the tone, a rat will react with fear to the tone but not to the light.
In Aldous Huxley's Brave New World, infants develop a fear of books after books are repeatedly presented with a loud noise. In this fictional example, the loud noise is a(n) conditioned stimulus.
In Pavlov's studies of classical conditioning of a dog's salivary responses, spontaneous recovery occurred when the CS was reintroduced following extinction of the CR and a rest period.
As a child, you were playing in the yard one day when a neighbor's cat wandered over. Your mother (who has a terrible fear of animals) screamed and snatched you into her arms. Her behavior caused you to cry. You now have a fear of cats. Identify the CR your fear today
After one chimpanzee sees a second chimp open a box that contains a food reward, the first animal opens a similar box with great speed. This best illustrates observational learning.
Because of the discomfort and embarrassment associated with his childhood bed-wetting, Andrew becomes nervous whenever he senses an urge to urinate. If genital arousal subsequently makes Andrew unusually anxious, this would best illustrate generalization.
Garcia and Koelling's findings on taste aversion in rats challenged the previously accepted principle that the US must immediately follow the CS for conditioning to occur
Last evening May-ling ate her first cheeseburger and french fries at an American fast-food restaurant. A few hours later she became ill. It can be expected that May-ling will develop an aversion to the taste of a cheeseburger and french fries.
After he was spanked on several occasions for spilling his milk at a restaurant, Colin became afraid to go to the restaurant. In this case, spanking was a(n) ________ for Colin's fear. unconditioned stimulus
In Pavlov's original experiment with dogs, the meat served as a US.
In a series of experiments, men found women more attractive and sexually desirable when their photos were framed in red.
Last year, Dr. Moritano cleaned Natacha's skin with rubbing alcohol prior to administering each of a series of painful rabies vaccination shots. Which of the following processes accounts for the fact that Natacha currently becomes fearful every time she s classical conditioning
Dogs conditioned to salivate when rubbed on their front paws also began to salivate when other parts of their bodies were rubbed. This best illustrates generalization.
When a CS is not paired with a US, the subsequent fading of a CR is called extinction
The speed with which people learn associations between the color red and female sexuality suggests that classical conditioning is influenced by biological predispositions.
The infant Albert developed a fear of rats after a white rat was associated with a loud noise. In this example, fear of the white rat was the CR
Animals most readily learn the specific associations that promote survival
As a child, you were playing in the yard one day when a neighbor's cat wandered over. Your mother (who has a terrible fear of animals) screamed and snatched you into her arms. Her behavior caused you to cry. You now have a fear of cats. Identify the NS, w the cat
A child's learned fear of the mere sight of a hypodermic needle is a(n) conditioned response.
Which of the following is an unconditioned response? sweating in hot weather
In classical conditioning, a stimulus that elicits no response before conditioning is called a(n) neutral stimulus.
Who introduced the term behaviorism? Watson
Pavlov's research on classical conditioning was important because of all of these reasons.
Researchers condition a flatworm to contract its body to a light by repeatedly pairing the light with electric shock. The stage in which the flatworm's contraction response to light is established and gradually strengthened is called acquisition.
Which of the following is an unconditioned response? jerking your hand off a very hot stove
John B. Watson would have expressed the greatest disapproval of attempts to scientifically study whether academic achievement is influenced by a positive self-concept.
Bill once had a blue car that was in the shop more than it was out. Since then he will not even consider owning blue- or green-colored cars. Bill's aversion to green cars is an example of generalization.
Long after being bitten by a stray dog, Alonzo found that his fear of dogs seemed to have disappeared. To his surprise, however, when he was recently confronted by a stray dog, he experienced a sudden twinge of anxiety. This sudden anxiety best illustrate spontaneous recovery.
The cognitive perspective would be likely to emphasize that classical conditioning depends on an organism's expectation that a US will follow a CS.
After receiving a painful shot from a female nurse in a white uniform, 3-year-old Vaclav is fearful of any woman wearing a white dress. Vaclav's reaction best illustrates generalization.
During extinction, the ________ is omitted; as a result, the ________ seems to disappear US; CR
An event that one of Pavlov's dogs could see or hear but did not associate with food was called a(n) neutral stimulus.
Myron quit gambling after he lost over a thousand dollars betting on horse races. This best illustrates the effects of punishment.
Every Saturday morning, Arnold quickly washes the family's breakfast dishes so that his father will allow him to wash his car. In this instance, washing the car is a(n) positive reinforcer.
A pigeon is consistently reinforced with food for pecking a key after seeing an image of a human face, but not reinforced for pecking after seeing other images. By signaling that a pecking response will be reinforced, the image of a human face is a(n) primary reinforcer
Mr. Schneider frequently tells his children that it is important to wash their hands before meals, but he rarely does so himself. Experiments suggest that his children will learn to preach the virtues of cleanliness but not practice cleanliness.
Because Mr. Baron demonstrates appreciation only for very good answers to his questions, his students have stopped participating in class. Mr. Baron most clearly needs to be informed of the value of shaping.
After pigs learned to pick up and deposit wooden coins in a piggy bank, the pigs subsequently dropped the coins repeatedly and pushed them with their snouts. This best illustrates the importance of ________ in operant conditioning. biological predispositions
A psychologist would be most likely to use ________ to determine whether nonverbal organisms can perceive different colors. shaping
Lars, a shoe salesman, is paid every two weeks, whereas Tom receives a commission for each pair of shoes he sells. Evidently, Lars is paid on a ________ schedule of reinforcement, and Tom on a ________ schedule of reinforcement. fixed-interval; fixed-ratio
Blake is a carpet installer who wants to be paid for each square foot of carpet he lays rather than with an hourly wage. Blake prefers working on a ________ schedule of reinforcement. variable-ratio
Which of the following statements concerning reinforcement is correct? Learning is most rapid with continuous reinforcement, but intermittent reinforcement produces the greatest resistance to extinction.
If rats are allowed to wander through a complicated maze, they will subsequently run the maze with few errors when a food reward is placed at the end. Their good performance demonstrates latent learning.
If the onset of a light reliably signals the onset of food, a rat in a Skinner box will work to turn on the light. In this case, the light is a ________ reinforcer. conditioned
Which pioneering learning researcher highlighted the antisocial effects of aggressive models on children's behavior? Bandura
An organism learns associations between events it does not control during the process of classical conditioning
After receiving a couple of traffic tickets for speeding, Masako no longer drives faster than the legal speed limit. This best illustrates the impact of punishment.
After discovering that her usual route home was closed due to road repairs, Sharetta used her knowledge of the city and sense of direction to find an alternate route. This is an example of using a cognitive map.
For purposes of effective child-rearing, most psychologists favor the use of reinforcement over punishment.
It is easier to train a dog to bark for food than to train it to stand on its hind legs for food. This best illustrates the importance of ________ in learning. biological predispositions
Both the receipt of monetary rewards and the suspension of monetary fines most clearly serve as ________ reinforcers. conditioned
Learning best defined as a relatively permanent change in the behavior of an organism due to experience
Revoking the driver's license of a reckless driver is intended to serve as a negative punishment.
Learning associations between one's own personal actions and resulting events is most relevant to the process of operant conditioning.
Pigs trained to pick up large wooden coins subsequently delayed receiving a food reinforcer because they would repeatedly drop and push the coins with their snouts. This best illustrates instinctive drift.
Shaping is a(n) ________ technique for ________ a behavior operant; establishing
Escape from a punishing event is a ________ reinforcer. negative
Elijah has learned to expect that whenever he studies diligently for tests, he will receive good grades. This suggests that associative learning involves cognitive processes.
Experimenters gave people a list of words to be recalled. When the participants were tested after a delay, the items that were best recalled were those at the beginning of the list.
To remember the information presented in her psychology textbook, Susan often relates it to her own life experiences. Susan's strategy is an effective memory aid because it facilitates meaningful encoding.
Dao, who suffered accidental damage to the right side of her hippocampus, has trouble remembering visual designs
Memory aids that involve the use of vivid imagery and clever ways of organizing material are called mnemonic devices.
Which of the following is most likely to be stored as an implicit memory? a conditioned fear of guns
Iconic memory refers to photographic or picture-image memory that lasts for only a few tenths of a second
Our immediate short-term memory for new material is limited to roughly ________ bits of information 7
When Tony is in a bad mood, he remembers his teachers as critical and uncaring. When he's in a good mood, he remembers them as more helpful and supportive. This best illustrates that our emotional states influence the process of retrieval
Storage is to encoding as ________ is to ________. rehearsal; retrieval
Ebbinghaus' use of nonsense syllables to study memory led to the discovery that the amount remembered depends on the time spent learning
Mr. Nydam suffers from amnesia and is unable to remember playing golf on a particular course. Yet the more he plays the course, the more his game improves. His experience illustrates the need to distinguish between explicit memory and implicit memory.
The extensive rehearsal necessary to encode nonsense syllables best illustrates effortful processing
A mnemonic device is a memory aid.
The relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system is called ________ memory. long-term
While in a context similar to one you've been in before, you see a stranger who looks and walks like one of your friends. These circumstances are likely to trigger the experience of déjà vu.
Brenda has trouble remembering her new five-digit ZIP plus four-digit address code. What is the most likely explanation for the difficulty Brenda is having? Nine digits are at or above the upper limit of most people's short-term memory capacity
Studies of amnesia victims suggest that there are two distinct types of memory.
Echoic memories fade after approximately 3 to 4 seconds
A year and a half after the 1989 San Francisco earthquake, people who directly experienced the event could still vividly recall their exact whereabouts at the time of the incident. This clear recall best illustrates ________ memory. flashbulb
The persistence of learning over time most clearly depends on memory.
One day after Usha hears her mother's list of 12 grocery items, Usha is most likely to remember the items ________ of the list. at the beginning
Elaine's memory of her Paris vacation is more positive today than it was last year just after she went. This best illustrates rosy retrospection
To recognize the active information processing that occurs in short-term memory, researchers have characterized it as ________ memory. working
Textbook chapters are often organized into ________ to facilitate information processing. hierarchies
Mood-congruent memory refers to the effect of emotional states on the process of retrieval
After looking up his friend's phone number, Alex was able to remember it only long enough to dial it correctly. In this case, the telephone number was clearly stored in his ________ memory. short-term
Memory of facts is to ________ as memory of skills is to ________. explicit memory; implicit memory
Amnesia patients typically experience disruption of explicit memories.
Which memory test would most effectively reveal that Mr. Quintano, at age 55, still remembers many of his high school classmates? recognition
Echoic memory refers to a momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli.
As compared with long-term memory, short-term memory is ________ permanent and ________ limited in storage capacity less; more
The retention of encoded information over time refers to storage.
Harry Bahrick observed that three years after people completed a Spanish course, they had forgotten much of the vocabulary they had learned. This finding indicates that information is lost while it is in storage
After having seen many pictures of the Lincoln Monument during his lifetime, Mr. Adams mistakenly recalled that he had actually visited the site. This best illustrates source amnesia.
During her evening Spanish language exam, Janica so easily remembers the French vocabulary she studied that morning that she finds it difficult to recall the Spanish vocabulary she rehearsed that afternoon. Her difficulty best illustrates proactive interference
People should avoid back-to-back study times for learning Spanish and French vocabulary in order to minimize interference
Austin can't remember Jack Smith's name because he wasn't paying attention when Jack was formally introduced. Austin's poor memory is best explained in terms of proactive interference.
Forming many associations between new course material and what you already know is an effective way to build a network of retrieval cues.
When children are interviewed about their recollections of possible sexual abuse, their reports are especially credible if involved adults have not discussed the issue with them prior to the interview.
Research on memory construction indicates that false memories often feel as real as true memories.
As a child, Andre dreamed that he was chased and attacked by a ferocious dog. Many years later, he mistakenly recalled that this had actually happened to him. Andre's false recollection best illustrates source amnesia
Two people learned nonsense syllables and then tried to recall them after up to eight hours had elapsed. Jenkins and Dallenbach observed that forgetting occurred least rapidly when the individuals spent their time sleeping.
Judy is embarrassed because she momentarily fails to remember a good friend's name. Judy's poor memory most likely results from a failure in retrieval.
The misinformation effect best illustrates the dynamics of memory construction.
Old information can sometimes facilitate our learning of new information as when knowing Spanish can help us learn Italian. This facilitating effect is called positive transfer
After attending group therapy sessions for adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse, Karen mistakenly remembered details from others' traumatic life stories as part of her own life history. This best illustrates the dangers of source amnesia.
While taking the final exam in American history, Marie was surprised and frustrated by her momentary inability to remember the name of the first president of the United States. Her difficulty most clearly illustrates retrieval failure
The misinformation effect provides evidence that memory may be reconstructed during recall according to how questions are framed
Repeating someone's name several times shortly after being introduced to that person is an effective strategy for rehearsal.
Researchers asked university students to imagine certain childhood events, including a false event such as breaking a window with their hand. They discovered that it is surprisingly easy to lead people to construct false memories.
Ebbinghaus discovered that the rate at which we forget newly learned information is initially rapid and subsequently slows down.
People with vivid imaginations are more likely than others to experience a(n) false memory
Adults who have trouble remembering incidences of childhood sexual abuse have often been led by therapists to believe that their memory difficulties are due to repression.
reports of repression and recovered memories indicate that extremely stressful life experiences are especially likely to be well remembered
When we fall in love, we tend to overestimate how much we liked our partner when we first began dating. This best illustrates the dynamics of memory construction.
An attorney uses misleading questions to distort a court witness' recall of a previously observed crime. This best illustrates the misinformation effect.
After finding her old combination lock, Janice can't remember its combination because she keeps confusing it with the combination of her new lock. She is experiencing retroactive interference.
Visualizing an object and actually seeing that object activate similar brain areas. This most clearly contributes to imagination inflation
When Hailey told her roommate about the chemistry exam she had just completed, she knowingly exaggerated its difficulty. Subsequently, her memory of the exam was that it was as difficult as she had reported it to be. This best illustrates the misinformation effect
The finding that people who sleep after learning a list of nonsense syllables forget less than people who stay awake provides evidence that forgetting may involve interference
After reading a newspaper report suggesting that drunken driving might have contributed to a recent auto accident, several people who actually witnessed the accident began to remember the driver involved as traveling more recklessly than was actually the the misinformation effect.
Which of the following illustrates the constructive nature of memory? Although Mrs. Harvey, who has Alzheimer's disease, has many gaps in her memory, she invents sensible accounts of her activities so that her family will not worry.
Compared with adults, children are more susceptible to the misinformation effect.
When Jake applied for a driver's license, he was embarrassed by a momentary inability to remember his address. Jake's memory difficulty most likely resulted from a(n) ________ failure retrieval
Taped information played during sleep is registered by the ears but is not remembered. This illustrates that the retention of information requires rehearsal.
After hearing stories of things they both had and had not actually experienced with “Mr. Science,” preschool children spontaneously recalled him doing things that were only mentioned in the stories. This best illustrates source amnesia
Most people take less time to identify a cow as a mammal than a mouse as a mammal because a cow more closely resembles their mammal prototype.
Unlike the use of algorithms or heuristics, insight does not involve strategy-based solutions
To find Tabasco sauce in a large grocery store, you could systematically search every shelf in every store aisle. This best illustrates problem solving by means of an algorithm.
To promote cognitive efficiency, concepts are often organized into category hierarchies.
Jahmal cites his cousin Luana's many car accidents as evidence that women are worse drivers than men. He overlooks the fact that his wife and three daughters have had far fewer car accidents than he and his two sons. Jahmal's prejudicial conclusion about confirmation bias
Stockbrokers who market their services with confidence that they can outperform the market average in picking stocks are especially likely to appear credible to their customers.
The basic units of cognition are concepts
On Monday, the meteorologist forecast a 20 percent chance of rain, so Sheryl took her umbrella to work. On Friday, he reported an 80 percent chance that it would not rain, so Sheryl left her umbrella at home. Sheryl's behavior illustrates the effect of framing
Christmas is to holiday as ________ is to ________. prototype; category
Professor Chadwick evaluated a graduate student's research proposal negatively simply because he had heard a rumor about the student's incompetence. When later informed that the rumor had been patently false, the professor's assessment of the student's re belief perseverance.
The confirmation bias refers to the tendency to search for information that supports our preconceptions
The availability heuristic refers to our tendency to judge the likelihood of an event in terms of how readily instances of its occurrence are remembered
The use of heuristics rather than algorithms is most likely to save time in arriving at solutions to problems.
Failing to recognize our potential for error is best demonstrated by overconfidence.
Marilyn was asked to solve a series of five math problems. The first four problems could only be solved by a particular sequence of operations. The fifth problem could also be solved following this sequence; however, a much simpler solution was possible. mental set
Stockbrokers often believe that their own expertise will enable them to select stocks that will outperform the market average. This belief best illustrates overconfidence.
The representativeness heuristic refers to our tendency to judge the likelihood of category membership by how closely an object or event resembles a particular prototype
In testing thousands of different materials for use as lightbulb filaments, Thomas Edison best illustrated a problem-solving approach known as trial and error.
Students are more likely to choose a condom that is said to be effective when informed that it has a 95 percent success rate than when told it has a 5 percent failure rate. This best illustrates the impact of framing.
Representativeness and availability are examples of heuristics
Heuristics are simple thinking strategies for solving problems quickly and efficiently.
In trying to solve a potentially complicated problem quickly, we are most likely to rely on heuristics
Jamilla systematically tried each successive key on her dad's key ring until she found the one that unlocked his office door. This best illustrates problem solving by means of an algorithm
In suggesting that our ancestral history has prepared us to fear snakes, psychologists are emphasizing that what we fear is influenced by genetic factors
Myra has such low self-esteem that she is often on the lookout for critical comments about her appearance and personality. Myra's behavior best illustrates the dangers of confirmation bias
People told that a chemical in the air is projected to kill 10 out of every 10,000 people feel more frightened than if told the fatality risk is one-tenth of 1 percent. This best illustrates the importance of framing.
By dividing broad concepts into increasingly smaller and detailed subgroupings, we create category hierarchies.
The tendency to search for information that supports our preconceptions is called confirmation bias.
A single, memorable case of welfare fraud can have a greater impact on people's estimates of welfare abuse than do statistics showing that this case is actually the exception to the rule. This illustrates that judgments are influenced by the availability heuristic
Framing refers to the way in which a problem or issue is phrased or worded.
When we use the term Hispanic to refer to a category of people, we are using this word as a(n) concept
Professor Thompson's research focuses on the impact of prototypes on the speed of object recognition and identification. Which specialty area does this research best represent? cognitive psychology
A televised image of a starving child had a greater impact on Mr. White's perception of the extensiveness of world hunger than did a statistical chart summarizing the tremendous scope of the problem. This suggests that his assessment of the world hunger p the availability heuristic.
The spontaneous utterance of a variety of sounds by infants is called babbling
The study in which people who immigrated to the United States at various ages were compared in terms of their ability to understand English grammar found that those who immigrated as children understood grammar as well as native speakers.
A listener hearing a recording of Japanese, Spanish, and North American children babbling would not be able to tell them apart.
Deaf children who are not exposed to sign language until they are teenagers never become as fluent as those who learned to sign at a younger age
Bilingual children who inhibit one language while using the other can better inhibit their attention to irrelevant information. This has been called the bilingual advantage
The problem-solving abilities of forest-dwelling chimpanzees are best illustrated by their naturally developed use of tools.
Many people who are bilingual experience a different sense of self, depending on which language they are using. This most clearly illustrates the implications of Whorf's linguistic determinism hypothesis
The isolated Piraha tribespeople of Brazil have no words for specific numbers higher than 2. If shown seven nuts in a row they find it difficult to lay out the same number from their own pile of nuts. This best illustrates the impact of language on thinking
Which of the following is NOT true of babbling? It is imitation of adult speech.
Which of the following would be most characteristic of a 2-year-old's telegraphic speech? eat apple”
The best evidence that there is a critical period for language acquisition is the fact that people most easily master the grammar of a second language during childhood.
Leland's language does not distinguish between “family love” and “romantic love,” so he has difficulty realizing that he deeply loves his sister. Which of the following is most relevant to Leland's difficulty? the linguistic determinism hypothesis
At 17 months of age, Julie says “wada” whenever she wants a drink of water. Julie is most likely in the ________ stage of language development. one-word
By learning to classify cats and dogs, monkeys demonstrate a capacity to form concepts.
Noam Chomsky has emphasized that the acquisition of language by children is facilitated by an inborn readiness to learn grammatical rules.
Researchers who are convinced that animals can think point to evidence that they exhibit all of these skills
Which of the following has been argued by critics of ape language research? All of these are arguments by critics.
Pigeons can reliably discriminate pictures of cars from pictures of chairs. This best illustrates their capacity to develop concepts.
Chomsky suggested that as a child first begins hearing language, appropriate settings or standards regarding the rules of that language are activated in the child's language acquisition device
At the age of 15 months, Anita repeatedly cries “hoy” when she wants her mother to hold her. Anita is most likely in the ________ stage of language development. one-word
A European visitor to the United States asked a taxi driver, “Can you please a ride to the airport me give?” This visitor has apparently not yet mastered the ________ of the English language. syntax
Children begin to demonstrate that they know how to put words in a sensible order during the ________ stage. two-word
Introductory psychology students were more likely to achieve a good midterm exam grade if prior to the exam they repeatedly practiced visual imagery that involved a process simulation
People's procedural memory of how to open the front door of their house is most likely to consist of a mental image
Beatrice and Allen Gardner taught the chimpanzee Washoe to communicate by means of sign language.
Spoken, written, or signed words and the ways they are combined to communicate meaning constitute language.
The earliest stage of speech development is called the ________ stage. babbling
The beginning of babies' receptive language development is best illustrated by their capacity to match another person's distinctive mouth movements with the appropriate sounds.
During a lecture, your professor says, “A child learns language as he interacts with caregivers.” This generic use of the pronoun he is more likely to trigger images of males than of females. This best illustrates the impact of language on thinking.
Using barely recognizable syllables to communicate meaning best illustrates a 12-month-old's developing capacity for productive language.
Which of the following is NOT true? The gender gap in math and science scores is increasing.
Spearman's g factor refers to a general intelligence that underlies successful performance on a wide variety of tasks
The widespread improvement in intelligence test performance during the past century is called the Flynn effect.
Which of the following observations provides the best evidence that intelligence test scores are influenced by heredity Identical twins reared separately are more similar in their intelligence scores than fraternal twins reared together
A statistical procedure that identifies clusters of related test items that seem to tap a common ability is called factor analysis
Generating multiple possible answers to a problem illustrates divergent thinking.
If a test yields consistent results every time it is used, it has a high degree of reliability.
Research on racial differences in intelligence indicates that on average, Black Americans perform less well than White Americans on intelligence tests
The heritability of intelligence is greatest among genetically similar individuals who have been raised in dissimilar environments
Although Nicole scored well above average on an academic aptitude test, she frequently loses her temper and needlessly antagonizes even her best friends. Her behavior best illustrates a low level of emotional intelligence.
When Brandon was told that he correctly answered 80 percent of the items on a math achievement test, he asked how his performance compared with that of the average test-taker. Brandon's concern was directly related to the issue of standardization.
After learning about his low score on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, Gunter complained, “I don't believe that test is a measure of intelligence at all.” Gunter's statement is equivalent to saying that the WAIS lacks validity.
The intelligence scores of adopted children are LEAST likely to correlate positively with the intelligence scores of their adoptive parents
If both depressed and nondepressed individuals receive similar scores on a diagnostic test for depression, it suggests that the test is not valid
About ________ percent of WAIS scores fall between 85 and 115. 68
The characteristics of savant syndrome have been used to support Gardner's argument for multiple intelligences.
A school psychologist found that 85 percent of those who scored above 115 on an aptitude test were “A” students and 75 percent of those who scored below 85 on the test were “D” students. The psychologist concluded that the test had high predictive validity because scores on it correlated highly with the criterion behavior
When Phoebe strongly disagrees with her sister's opinion, she effectively controls her own anger and responds with empathy to her sister's frustration regarding their dispute. Her behavior best illustrates emotional intelligence.
One component of emotional intelligence involves predicting accurately when feelings are about to change.
The ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and use knowledge to adapt to new situations is known as intelligence.
The similarity between the intelligence test scores of identical twins raised apart is greater than that between ordinary siblings reared together
The extent to which differences in intelligence among a group of people are attributable to genetic factors is known as the ______ of intelligence. heritability
Intelligence tests have effectively reduced discrimination in the sense that they have helped limit reliance on educators' subjectively biased judgments of students' academic potential
Intrinsic motivation is thought to be an important component of creativity.
Of the following, who best illustrates Sternberg's concept of analytical intelligence? Selma, a 9-year-old who solves complicated mathematical problems in record time
To assess mental age, Binet and Simon measured children's reasoning skills.
Psychological tests show that 18-year-old Isaiah has an intelligence score of 65. Nevertheless, Isaiah can, with a few seconds of mental calculation, accurately tell the day of the week on which Christmas falls for any year in this century. It would be fa Isaiah is a person with savant syndrome.
Academic aptitude test scores are MOST likely to predict accurately the academic success of ________ students. elementary school
Binet used the term mental age to refer to the chronological age that most typically corresponds to a given level of intelligence test performance.
Those who score above average on tests of mathematical aptitude are also likely to score above average on tests of verbal aptitude. According to Spearman, this best illustrates the importance of the g factor.
Children are likely to focus on learning and growing rather than on proving and defending their identity if they believe that intelligence is changeable.
Generating the single correct answer to an intelligence test question illustrates convergent thinking.
Dr. Milosz electrically stimulates the lateral hypothalamus of a well-fed laboratory rat. This procedure is likely to cause the rat to begin eating
The onset of ________ often begins after a dieter has broken diet restrictions and gorged. bulimia nervosa
After eating a normal lunch, two patients readily consumed a second lunch 20 minutes later because they had no memory of the previous meal
Hunger is increased by ________; it is decreased by ________. stimulation of the lateral hypothalamus; stimulation of the ventromedial hypothalamus
For a hungry person, the consumption of food serves to maintain homeostasis.
Individuals with anorexia nervosa often have low self-evaluations and high achievement standards.
The secretion of PYY _________ hunger and the secretion of orexin ________ hunger. decreases; increases
Food deprivation is to ________ as hunger is to ________. need; drive
An incentive is a positive or negative environmental stimulus that motivates behavior.
Psychologists have used four perspectives in their efforts to explain motivation. These include an emphasis on instincts, optimum arousal, a hierarchy of motives, and drive reduction
With sleep deprivation, the levels of leptin ________ and the levels of ghrelin ________. fall; rise
Close-Up) Which of the following is true concerning eating disorders? All of these statements are true
A violent illness that follows our eating of a particular food is likely to influence our taste preferences. This illustrates that taste preferences are influenced by learning experiences.
Anorexia patients are most likely to have parents who are high-achieving and protective
A starving rat will lose all interest in food if its ________ is destroyed. lateral hypothalamus
Few human behaviors are rigidly patterned enough to qualify as instincts.
People are more vulnerable to obesity if they experience sleep deprivation
Research on obesity indicates that once fat cells are acquired they are never lost, no matter how rigorously one diets.
Research on the genetic and environmental influences on body weight has revealed that the weight of adopted people correlates with that of their biological parents, not with that of their adoptive parents.
Whenever people face famine, obesity is a sign of high social status
A need refers to a physiological state that usually triggers motivational arousal.
Twenty-two-year-old Tawana is slightly overweight and loves to eat, particularly snack foods and rich desserts. Fearful of becoming overweight, she frequently takes a laxative following episodes of binge eating. Tawana most clearly suffers from bulimia nervosa.
The arousal theory of motivation would be most useful for understanding the aversive effects of boredom.
Hunger controls are located within the brain's hypothalamus.
The specific body weight maintained automatically by most adults over long periods of time is known as the set point.
Research on obesity and weight control indicates that once we become fat, we require less food to maintain our weight than we did to attain it
On some college football teams, players are rewarded for outstanding performance with a gold star on their helmets. This practice best illustrates the use of incentives.
Which of the following is NOT an example of homeostasis? feeling hungry at the sight of an appetizing food
The role of learning in motivation is most obvious from the influence of incentives.
Which of the following is a hunger-suppressing hormone secreted by the stomach? obestatin
Lucille has been sticking to a strict diet but can't seem to lose weight. What is the most likely explanation for her difficulty? Her pre-diet weight was near her body's set point
Those who trace the origins of social bonding to its survival value are most likely to agree that the need to belong is genetically influenced
It has been suggested that the fraternal birth-order effect is a result of a maternal immune response
An integrated understanding of sexual motivation in terms of sex hormones, sexual fantasies, and cultural values is most clearly provided by the biopsychosocial approach
Evidence that brain anatomy differences account for variations in sexual orientation is provided by the fact that these brain differences originate at about the time of birth
When asked what makes life meaningful, most people first mention satisfying relationships.
A birth-order effect seems to play a role in sexual orientation among men who are right-handed
Lower rates of pregnancy have been observed among teens who have participated in a service learning program as tutors or teachers' aides
Our need to belong is most clearly threatened by ostracism
Many sexually active American adolescents fail to avoid pregnancy because low sex guilt inhibits the careful planning of contraceptive use
With respect to sex research and human values, the text suggests that scientific methods prevent sex researchers from being influenced by their own personal values.
Research on sex hormones and human sexual behavior indicates that adult males who suffer castration experience a decline in their sex drive.
Mr. and Mrs. Kohl plan to spend their evening watching X-rated sex movies. Watching these films is most likely to increase their levels of sexual arousal.
Which of the following is NOT true regarding homosexuality? Most people report never having a homosexual experience.
Compared with girls living in father-absent families, girls with fathers present are less likely to experience teen pregnancy
A deep sense of well-being results when our need for relatedness is satisfied in balance with our psychological need for autonomy
Foolish conformity to peer pressure is most likely to be motivated by ________ needs. belongingness
Professor Fiekema claims that people are genetically predisposed to live in groups because social attachments enhanced the survival and reproductive success of our human ancestors. The professor's suggestion best illustrates the evolutionary perspective.
Which of the following statements concerning homosexuality is true? Research indicates that sexual orientation may be at least partly physiological.
Women's sexual receptivity differs from that of nonhuman female mammals in being more responsive to ________ levels than to estrogen levels. testosterone
Research on the human sexual response cycle indicates that female orgasm increases the likelihood of conception.
Which of the following is NOT true regarding sexual orientation? Men's sexual orientation is potentially more fluid and changeable than women's.
American and South Korean collegians indicated that the satisfaction of ________ were the top two contributors to their peak moment in the past week. self-esteem and belongingness needs
Gina and Nanette are sisters and both are lesbians. According to the research on the origins of sexual orientation, it is highly likely that none of these things are true
The fraternal birth-order effect refers to a factor associated with sexual orientation
The stress normally experienced by immigrants is lessened by chain migration. This best illustrates the importance of ________ needs. belongingness
While viewing erotica, men and women differ in the activity levels of which brain area? amygdala
The greatest number of deaths in North America today result from heart disease
You have just transferred to a new campus and find yourself in a potentially stressful environment. According to the text, which of the following would help you cope with the stress All of these things would help
The natural disappearance of a disease is called spontaneous remission
During the stressful first few weeks of law school, students were observed to have stronger immune systems if they were optimistic
Each semester, Bob does not start studying until just before midterms. Then he is forced to work around the clock until after final exams, which makes him sick, probably because he is in the ________ phase of the ________. exhaustion; general adaptation syndrome
One person, alone in a house, dismisses its creaking sounds and experiences no stress; someone else suspects an intruder and becomes alarmed. These different reactions illustrate the importance of stress appraisal.
The component of Type A behavior that is the most predictive of coronary disease is anger
Ricardo has been unable to resolve a stressful relationship with a family member. To cope, he turns to a close friend for social support. Ricardo's coping strategy is an example of emotion-focused coping
Which of the following is most likely to foster stronger immune functioning? social support
Homeopathy and herbal remedies are forms of CAM
After breaking up with his girlfriend, Eric came down with a severe respiratory infection. His illness may have been caused to a large extent by a(n) ________ in his body's production of ________. decrease; lymphocytes
The relaxation response associated with meditation is most likely to decrease oxygen consumption and decrease blood pressure.
Cameron, a 50-year-old electrician, opens his pay envelope and, to his surprise, finds a pink slip inside indicating that he has been fired from his job. Which phase of the general adaptation syndrome is Cameron most likely experiencing? alarm reaction
One possible explanation for the longer life expectancy of religiously active people is that they receive more social support.
The macrophage and lymphocytes are major agents of the immune system.
To alleviate the stress he feels after failing a college course, Jeremy seeks social support from his friends and family. Jeremy's behavior best illustrates emotion-focused coping
The third phase of the general adaptation syndrome is characterized by exhaustion.
Physical and emotional responses to threatening and challenging events are referred to as stress reactions.
Tend and befriend refers to an alternative to the fight-or-flight response that may be more common in women.
Genuine illnesses that are caused by stress are called ________ illnesses. psychophysiological
After breaking up with her boyfriend, Kathy alleviated her stress by avoiding contact with her ex-boyfriend and by planning recreational activities with her best girlfriend. Kathy's behavior best illustrates emotion-focused coping
Type A is to ________ as Type B is to ________. hard-driving; easygoing
The text defines stress as the process by which we perceive and respond to environmental threats and challenges.
In their classic nine-year study, Friedman and Rosenman reported that, compared with Type A men, Type B men were less susceptible to heart attacks.
Israelis living in nonreligious collective settlements were observed to have ________ than those living in religiously orthodox collective settlements. higher rates of death
Which form of treatment has claimed to correct imbalances of energy flow at identifiable points close to the skin? acupuncture
Physical illnesses, such as hypertension and some headaches, that are not caused by an organic disorder but instead seem linked to stress are referred to as ________ illnesses. psychophysiological
The closing of the vessels that nourish the heart muscle is known as coronary heart disease
People have been found to suffer fewer health problems following the death of their spouse if they communicate their painful feelings of loss to close friends.
Wild animals placed in zoos sometimes die shortly thereafter. These deaths are likely to result from a(n) decrease in the animals' production of lymphocytes
It has been suggested that a coherent worldview may contribute to the stress protection associated with the faith factor
Addressing stressors with problem-focused coping would be most characteristic of those who experience personal control
People tend to use emotion-focused rather than problem-focused coping strategies when they believe they cannot change a stressful situation.
Luigi minimized the stress of testing positive for HIV by viewing this circumstance as an opportunity for a renewed religious commitment and spiritual growth. His reaction best illustrates the importance of stress appraisal.
A stressor is a(n) environmental event that threatens or challenges us
Cameron, a 50-year-old electrician, opens his pay envelope and, to his surprise, finds a pink slip inside indicating that he has been fired from his job. Which phase of the general adaptation syndrome is Cameron most likely experiencing? alarm reaction
The third phase of the general adaptation syndrome is characterized by exhaustion.
Physical and emotional responses to threatening and challenging events are referred to as stress reactions.
In their classic nine-year study, Friedman and Rosenman reported that, compared with Type A men, Type B men were less susceptible to heart attacks
Failing to recognize our potential for error is best demonstrated by overconfidence.
The smell of freshly baked bread awakened in Mr. Hutz vivid memories of his early childhood. The aroma apparently acted as a powerful retrieval cue.
Hypertension rates are highest in those European countries where people report the lowest subjective well-being.
To alleviate the stress of losing her job, Alicia enrolled in a work retraining program that led to full-time employment. Alicia's behavior best illustrates problem-focused coping.
Long-term potentiation refers to an increase in a neuron's firing potential
To combine words into a grammatically sensible order, we need to apply proper rules of syntax
People more easily detect male prejudice against women than female prejudice against men because the former more closely resembles their prejudice prototype.
You are most likely to automatically encode information about the sequence of your day's events.
One effect of long-term potentiation is that a receiving neuron's receptor sites are increased
When completing a verbal aptitude test, members of an ethnic minority group are particularly likely to perform below their true ability levels if they believe that the test is biased against members of their own ethnic group.
During meditative relaxation, a part of the ________ lobe that tracks where we are in space is ________ active than usual. parietal; less
A rapid progression from HIV infection to AIDS is ________ by the death of a life partner and ________ by participation in bereavement support groups. facilitated; inhibited
After learning that kicking would move a crib mobile, infants showed that they recalled this learning best if they were tested in the same crib. This best illustrates the impact of ________ on recall. retrieval cues
A modern information-processing model that views memories as emerging from particular activation patterns within neural networks is known as connectionism.
Aerobic exercise is associated with increased levels of serotonin and increased levels of the endorphins.
More than a dozen national surveys in the early 1990s indicated that in both Europe and the United States, about ________ percent of men are gay and about ________ percent of women are lesbian 3 or 4; 1 or 2
Studying initially healthy men over a 10-year period, researchers found that pessimistic adult men were more than twice as likely as optimistic men to experience coronary heart disease.
The tendency for distributed study to yield better long-term retention than massed study is known as the spacing effect.
The disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new information is called proactive interference.
Kevin did not know whether the locker room was located down the short hallway to his right or down the long hallway to his left. Crossing his fingers, he decided to try the short hallway. His problem-strategy best illustrates trial and error
Memories are primed by retrieval cues
About ________ percent of WAIS scores fall between 70 and 130. 95
Which test has been demonstrated to be a highly reliable measure? all of these tests
Infantile amnesia is largely associated with a lack of ________ memory explicit
Who emphasized that we repress anxiety-arousing memories? Freud
People who demonstrate overconfidence are especially likely to make difficult decisions more easily
Research on memory construction indicates that memories of past experiences are likely to be distorted by our current assumptions.
After Georgiana learns that a tornado has destroyed her house, her brain probably directed her adrenal glands to react by secreting norepinephrine.
Ancel Keys and his colleagues observed that men on a semistarvation diet lost interest in sex and social activities.
Melinda completed the Computer Programming Aptitude Test when she applied for a position with Beta Electronics. Six months later, she took the same test when she applied for a position with another company. The fact that her scores were almost identical o reliability.
Although Yusef was having difficulty recalling the capital of the Netherlands, he quickly and correctly identified it after being given a list of cities in the Netherlands. Yusef's initial inability to recall the answer was due to a failure in retrieval
The concept of emotional intelligence is most likely to be criticized for extending the definition of intelligence to an overly broad range of skills
Iconic memory refers to photographic or picture-image memory that lasts for only a few tenths of a second
Gender differences in erotic plasticity are best illustrated by the fact that women tend to be more changeable than men in sexual orientation.
The World Health Organization identifies obesity as a high body mass index
A flashbulb memory would typically be stored in ________ memory. long-term
Hans Selye referred to the body's response to stress as the general adaptation syndrome
Introductory psychology students were more likely to achieve a good midterm exam grade if prior to the exam they repeatedly practiced visual imagery that involved a process simulation.
Those who learn sign language as teens never become as fluent as children exposed to sign language from birth. This best illustrates the importance of ________ for mastering language. a critical period
Employing the single word HOMES to remember the names of North America's five Great Lakes best illustrates the use of a mnemonic device
Injury to certain areas of the ________ lobes can destroy imagination while leaving reading, writing, and arithmetic skills intact. frontal
B. F. Skinner emphasized the importance of ________ in language acquisition reinforcement
The spacing effect means that distributed study yields better retention than cramming
Walter Cannon observed that a variety of stressors trigger a fight-or-flight reaction.
Compared with traditional college entrance exams, assessments that include tests of Sternberg's three intelligences reveal ________ ethnic-group differences in intelligence and ________ accurate prediction of American students' first-year grades reduced; more
A mother's immune system may have a defensive response to substances produced by male fetuses. This is most likely to contribute to the fraternal birth-order effect
Whenever Valerie experiences intense feelings of fear, she is overwhelmed with childhood memories of her abusive parents. Valerie's experience best illustrates mood-congruent memory
Mental set is a type of fixation
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