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Ch 6 section 1-3

Types of chemical reactions

Electrolytes are substances whose aqueous solutions conduct electric current.
non electrolytes do not conduct electricity.
3 major classes of solutes are strong electrolytes: Strong acids Strong bases Most soluble salts These compounds are completely or nearly completely ionized (or dissociated) in dilute aq solutions, so they are strong electrolytes.
a substance that produces H+ in aq solution
A base is a substance that produces OH- ions in aq solution.
a compound that contains a cation (other than H+) and an anion (other than OH- or O2-)
Strong acids ionize (separate into H+ and stable anions) completely or nearly completely in dilute aq solutions.
Examples of strong acids HCl hydrochloric acid HBr hydrobromic acid HI hydroiodic acid HNO3 nitric acid H2SO4 sulfuric acid HClO3 chloric acid HClO4 perchloric acid
Ionize only slightly (usually less than 5%) in dilute aq solution, so that’s why they are weak (less H+). Have reversible reactions
examples of weak acids HF hydrofluoric acid CH3COOH acetic acid (vinegar) HCN hydrocyanic acid HNO2 nitrous acid H2CO3 carbonic acid (soda water) H2SO3 sulfurous acid H3PO4 phosphoric acid (COOH)2 oxalic acid
are soluble in water and are dissociated completely in dilute aq solution. Ionize 100% in H2O
Common strong bases LiOH lithium hydroxide NaOH sodium hydroxide KOH potassium hydroxide RbOH rubidium hydroxide CsOH cesium hydroxide Ca(OH)2 calcium hydroxide Sr(OH)2 strontium hydroxide Ba(OH)2 barium hydroxide All hydroxides of IA and IIA metals.
not very basic. Cu(OH)2 copper (II) hydroxide Fe(OH)2 iron (II) hydroxide Fe(OH)3 iron (III) hydroxide Zn(OH)2 zinc (II) hydroxide Mg(OH)2 magnesium hydroxide
weak bases covalent compounds that ionize slightly in water. Ammonia is most common weak base
Solubility Guidelines for Compounds in Aqueous Solutions Common inorganic acids and low-molecular-weight organic acids are water soluble. All common compounds of the Group IA metal ions and the ammonium ion are water soluble. Li+, Na+, K+, Rb+, Cs+, and NH4+
Solubility Guidelines for Compounds in Aqueous Solutions continued Common nitrates, acetates, chlorates, and perchlorates are water soluble. NO3-, CH3COO-, ClO3-, and ClO4-
Solubility Guidelines for Compounds in Aqueous Solutions continued Common chlorides are water soluble. Exceptions – AgCl, Hg2Cl2, & PbCl2 Common bromides and iodides behave similarly to chlorides. Common fluorides are water soluble. Exceptions – MgF2, CaF2, SrF2, BaF2, and PbF2
Solubility Guidelines for Compounds in Aqueous Solutions continued Common sulfates are water soluble. Exceptions – PbSO4, BaSO4, & HgSO4 Moderately soluble – CaSO4, SrSO4, & Ag2SO4 Common metal hydroxides are water insoluble. Exceptions – LiOH, NaOH, KOH, RbOH, CsOH, Ca(OH)2, Sr(OH)2, Ba(OH)2
Common carbonates, phosphates, and arsenates are water insoluble. CO32-, PO43-, & AsO43- Exceptions- IA metals and NH4+ Moderately soluble – MgCO3 Common sulfides are water insoluble. Exceptions – IA metals and NH4+ plus IIA metals
Solubility The higher the charges are the more strongly the anion and cation attract one another and the less soluble the salt is likely to be.
Size of ions also matters: the smaller ions are able to get closer to one another and thus increase the ionic attractive force. Larger anions with low neg charges almost always give soluble salts (nitrates, perchlorates)
Reactions in Aqueous Solution Symbolic representation of what is happening at the laboratory and molecular levels in aqueous solutions.
three ways to write reactions in aqueous solutions Molecular equation/formula unit equations Show all reactants & products in molecular or ionic form Total ionic equation Show the ions & molecules as they exist in solution Net ionic equation: shows ions that participate in reaction removes spectator
Spectator ions do not participate in the reaction. They are the ones that appear in the same form on both sides of the total ionic equation
Binary compounds made of two elements. metal + nonmetal = ionic compound nonmetal + nonmetal = covalent compound Name the more metallic element first. Name the less metallic element second.
Binary Ionic Compounds are made of a metal cation and a nonmetal anion. Cation named first Anion named second
Metals exhibiting multiple oxidation states are most of the transition metals, metals in groups III (not Al), IV, & V Old method: add “ic” for higher oxidation state “ous” for lower Modern method: Roman numerals in () to indicate metal’s oxidation sta
Pseudobinary ionic compounds There are three polyatomic ions that commonly form binary ionic compounds. OH- hydroxide CN- cyanide NH4+ ammonium
Binary Acids binary compounds w/ hydrogen & nonmetal Usually gases @ room temp Nomenclature for gaseous compounds: hydrogen (stem)ide. When the compounds are dissolved in water they form acidic solutions. Nomenclature for the acidic solutions is hydro (stem)ic a
Binary covalent molecular compounds composed of two nonmetals other than hydrogen Nomenclature must include prefixes that specify the number of atoms of each element in the compound. Use the minimum number of prefixes necessary to specify the compound. Frequently drop the prefix mono-.
Ternary Acids and Their Salts are made of three elements H, O, & a nonmetal
naming Ternary Acids and Their Salts 2 of the compounds are chosen as the basis for the nomenclature system. Higher oxidation state for nonmetal is named (stem)ic acid. Lower oxidation state named (stem)ous acid Salts: Anions of -ic make “ate” salts. Anions of -ous acids make “ite” salts
There are two other possible acid and salt combinations. Acids that have a higher oxidation state than the “ic” acid are given the prefix “per”. These acids and salts will have one more O atom than the “ic” acid.
Acids that have a lower oxidation state than the “ous” acid are given the prefix “hypo”. These acids and salts will have one less O atom than the “ous” acid.
Created by: tilleryc