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Ch 4 Section 15-17

Quantium numbers

Werner Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle: it is impossible to determine simultaneously the position and momentum of an e- Momentum is mass*velocity Detecting an e- requires use of electromagnetic radiation must speak of the electrons’ position about the atom in terms of
Basic Postulates of Quantum Theory Atoms and molecules can exist only in certain energy states. In each, the atom has a definite energy. When an atom or molecule changes its energy state, it must emit or absorb just enough energy to bring it to the new energy state (the quantum condition)
Basic Postulates of Quantum Theory Atoms or molecules emit or absorb radiation (light) as they change their energies. The frequency of the light emitted or absorbed is related to the energy change by a simple equation.
Basic Postulates of Quantum Theory Allowed energy states of atoms & molecules can be described by sets of quantum numbers. Four quantum numbers are necessary to describe energy states of electrons in atoms.
Blocks S, P, D, F
quantium numbers Quantum numbers play important roles in describing the energy levels of electrons and the shapes of the orbitals that describe distributions of electrons. An atomic orbital is a region of space in which the probability of finding an electron is high.
Principal quantum number: n Describes the main energy level (or shell); determines size of orbital (the bigger the n the bigger the orbital) n= 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6…
Momentum quantum number: l tells us the shape of the orbitals Within a shell (n number) different sublevels or subshells are possible l = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, .......(n-1) l = s, p, d, f, g, h, .......(n-1)
Magnetic quantum number, ml Designates a specific orbital within a subshell; determines the orientation of the orbitals within a subshell When l = 1 then p orbitals so have 3 px, py, pz, so ml can be -1, 0, 1
Spin quantum number, ms Refers to the spin of the electron and the orientation of the magnetic field produced by the spin. ms = + ½ Each atomic orbital can accommodate no more than 2 e one with ms of + ½ and one with -1/2
The principal quantum number has the symbol n. n = 1, 2, 3, 4, ...... “shells” The electron’s energy depends principally on n .
The angular momentum quantum number has the symbol l. l = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, .......(n-1) l= s, p, d, f, g, h, .......(n-1)  tells us the shape of the orbitals. These orbitals are the volume around the atom that the electrons occupy 90-95% of the time.
The symbol for the magnetic quantum number is ml. 2l + 1 = # of ml ml = - l , (- l + 1), (- l +2), 0, (l -2), (l -1), l If l = 0 then there is one ml = 0. Tthere is only 1 value of ml.there is one s orbital per n value. n ml If l = 1 then ml = -1,0,+1.
The last quantum number is the spin quantum number The spin quantum number only has two possible values. ms = +1/2 or -1/2 Tells us the spin and orientation of the magnetic field of the electrons. Wolfgang Pauli discovered the Exclusion Principle: No 2 e- in an atom can have the same set of 4 quantum
atomic orbital a region of space in which the probability of finding an electron is high
Created by: tilleryc