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Ch 4 Section 10

The Periodic Table: metals, nonmetals, and metalloids

Mendeleev arranged the known elements in order of increasing atomic weight in successive sequences so that elements with similar chemical properties fell into the same column. He provided for elements that were unknown at the time and predicted their properties
Periodic Law The properties of the elements are periodic functions of their atomic numbers.
Groups or families Vertical group of elements on periodic table Similar chemical and physical properties
Period Horizontal group of elements on periodic table Transition from metals to nonmetals Elements within a period have properties that change progressively across the table
alkali metals IA metals
alkaline earth metals IIA metals
Halogens VIIA non metals
Noble VIIIA non metals
Chemical properties of metals Outer shells contain few electrons Form cations by losing electrons Form ionic compounds with nonmetals Solid state characterized by metallic bonding
Chemical properties of non metals Outer shells contain four or more electrons Form anions by gaining electrons Form ionic compounds with metals and covalent compounds with other nonmetals Form covalently bonded molecules; noble gases are monatomic
Metals, non metals, metalloids Metals are to the left of stair step(80% of elements)best metals are on the far left of the table. Nonmetals are to the right of stair step(20% of elements) best nonmetals are on the far right of table Metalloids have one side of the box on the stair st
Periodic trends in metallic character Metallic character increases from top to bottom and decreases from left to right with respect to position in the periodic table. Cs is the most active occurring metal.
Periodic trends in nonmetallic character Nonmetallic character decreases from top to bottom and increases from left to right in the periodic table. Fluorine is the most active nonmetal.
Created by: tilleryc