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Solar System PHY1455

QuestionAnswer
Earth's Vital Statistics Mass: 6.08*10^24kg Radius: 6400km Density: 5500kg/m^3
Features of Earth's Motion Orbital Period: 1 year Rotation Period: 23 hours 56 minutes
Earth's Interior Core: Hot, Iron Rich, Highest Density Two Regions: Liquid Outer Core, Solid Inner Core Electric currents produce magnetic field Mantle: Rocky Material, Hot, Mid-Range Density Crust: Thin layer of least dense rocky material
Earth's Surface Oceans: Basins made of basalt Continents: Granite, Mountains, Rift Valleys, Volcanoes, Earthquakes Geological Activity: Plate Tectonics Probes in Interior: Seismic Waves, S&P Waves Processes: Differentiation, Convection, Plate Tectonics, Tidal Interat
Earth's Atmosphere Chemical Composition: Nitrogen-78%, Oxygen-21%, Argon-.9%, Carbon Dioxide-.03% Temperature & Weather: Greenhouse Effect - Atmosphere retains radiation, O-zone absorbs UV rays Weather and clouds within 10km of surface
Earth's Local Space Environment Magnetosphere = magnetic field + solar wind Natural satellite: moon
Earth's Energy Source Natural radioactivity Heat left over from formation
Moon's Vital Statistics Mass: .012 Earth's Radius: .27 Earth's Density: 3300kg/m^3
Features of Moon's Motion Synchronous Rotation: one month for completion, influences tides
Moon's Interior Cool, Not Iron Rich
Moon's Surface Thicker on far side, Thinner on Earth's side Major Geological Activity: Impact cratering
Moon's Main Surface Features Maria: Dark, Smooth, Basalts Highlands: Bright, Rough, Anorthosites Type of Rock: Basalt, Anorthosites, Breccia, Regolith
Moon's Probes Apollo Missions First two men on the moon: Neil Armstrong, Buzz Aldrin
Moon's Geological History Formed from a collision 4.5 billion years ago Initially molten Early Period: Heavy cratering, Highlands formed Later period: Few impacts, Maria formed Essentially geologically dead after 3 billion years
Mercury's Vital Statistics Mass: .055 Earth's Radius: .38 Earth's Density: 5400kg/m^3
Features of Mercury's Motion Resonance Rotation
Mercury's Interior Cool, Iron Rich Core
Mercury's Surface Features Caloris Basin: Large impact crater Jumbled Terrain: Hilly formation on opposite side of planet from Caloris Basin Intercrater Plains: Smoothed surface regions from lava flow Scarps: Huge cliffs
Mercury's Atmosphere No atmosphere Temperature: 440K Weak magnetic field Probes: Mariner 10
Venus' Vital Statistics Mass: .78 Earth's Radius: .95 Earth's Density: 5300kg/m^3 Volume: .81 Earth's
Venus' Interior Large, Hot, Iron Rich Core
Venus' Surface Features Maxwell Montes: Largest mountain on Venus (shield volcano) Aphrodite Terra: Largest highlands Isthar Terra: Highland containing Maxwell Montes
Venus' Atmosphere Weather: Constant cloud cover, Sulfuric acid clouds at 50km Temperature: 730K Pressure: 90 times Earth's Chemical Composition: Carbon Dioxide-95.3%, Nitrogen-3.5%
Venus' Local Space Environment No measurable magnetic field No moons Probes: Orbiting-Magllan (used radar imaging) Landers-Venera 1&2
Mars' Vital Statistics Mass: .11 Earth's Radius: .53 Earth's Density: 3900kg/m^3 Volume: .149 Earth's
Features of Mars' Motion Period of a day is 24.6 hours Tilt angle of rotation axis is 24 degrees: This means Mars has seasons
Mars' Interior Small, Cool, Slightly Iron Rich Core
Mars' Surface Features Olympus Mons: Shield volcano, Largest mountain in solar system Valles Mariners: Enormous valley, runs along equator Polar Icecaps: Frozen water and Carbon Dioxide Evidence of past water flow Red dust is Iron Oxide (rust)
Mars' Geologic Activity Northern Hemisphere: More Volcanism Southern Hemisphere: More Impact Craters Plate Tectonics: Formation of plates, cooled too quickly
Mars' Atmosphere Weather: Global dust storms Temperature: 50K cooler than Earth Pressure: 1/150th of Earth's Chemical Composition: Carbon Dioxide-95.3%, Nitrogen-2.7%, Argon-1.6%
Mars' Local Space Environment Weak magnetic field Two moons: Small irregular shapes, Not like our moon, Captured asteriods Probes: Viking 1&2, Mars Rovers-Spirit, Opportunity
Jupiter's Vital Statistics Radius: 11% Earth's Volume: 1331 Earth's Density: 1330kg/m^3
Features of Jupiter's Motion Fast differential rotation Rotation Period: 9hrs, 5 min at equator; 6min longer at poles A solid object cannot spin at different rates
Jupiter's Interior Enormous temperatures Enormous pressure Rocky Core, Metallic, Hydrogen Heat is left over from the formation of the planet
Jupiter's Surface Actually the upper layer of clouds Fast rotation causes clouds to form bands around planet Bright yellow, Orange, and Red The Great Red Spot: "hurricane" Magnetic Field is the largest planetary structure in the solar system
Jupiter's Probes Voyager 1&2 Galileo
Jupiter's Moons Io, Europa, Ganymede, Callisto
Saturn's Vital Statistics Radius: 9.5 Earth's Density: 700kg/m^3 Volume: 860 Earth's
Features of Saturn's Motion Fast differential rotation Similar to Jupiter's
Saturn's Interior Enormous Temperatures Enormous Pressure
Saturn's Surface Actually upper cloud layer mechanism for internal heating: Helium precipitation Ring System: Jovian Planets have rings, Cassini Division, Roche Limit, Shepherd Satellites, Made of water and ice
Uranus/Neptune's Properties Blue/Green colour do to methane Temperatures are too cold for chemicals that give off orange/yellow colours
Uranus' Features Tilt of rotation axis is 90 degrees Discovered by William Herschel Moon: Miranda, broke apart and reformed
Neptune's Features Great Dark Spot Discovered by John Couch Adams and Urbain Leverrier First observed by Johann Galle Moon: Triton-thin nitrogen atmosphere and ice volcanoes
Pluto's Vital Statistics Mass: .0021 Earth's Radius: .2 Earth's Density: 2000kg/m^3
Features of Pluto's Motion Sometimes closer to Sun than Neptune
Pluto's Physical Properties Like ice moons around Jovian planets
Pluto's Moon Charon
Best Images of Pluto and Charon Hubble Space Telescope No probes sent to Pluto
Created by: breannalmiller