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Into to Organic Chem

5.2 Nomenclature - Naming organic Compounds

Empirical Formula: The simplest ratio of atoms in a compound.
Displayed Formula: A display of a molecule showing every atom and bond.
Structural formula: A written out, simplified version of the displayed formula.
Functional Group: An atom or group of atoms in an organic molecule that are responsible for it characteristic reactions.
Homologous Series: A set of Organic Molecules with the SAME FUNCTIONAL GROUP. The compounds differ in the length of their hydrocarbon chains.
Alkanes: Simple Hydrocarbon Chains, Suffix: 'ane' (Methane)
Alkenes: Contain carbon-carbon double bonds, suffix: '-ene' (Ethene)
Haloalkanes: Contain a Halogen (F, Cl, Br, I...), PREFIX: 'Halo-', specific to each type: Chloromethane etc.
Alcohols: Contain (-O-H), Suffix: '-ol'. E.g Methanol.
Aldehydes: Contain R-C(-H)=0, Suffix: '-al', e.g Methanal.
Keytones: Contain R-C(-O)-R, suffix: '-one' e.g Methanone.
Carboxylic Acids: Contain Carboxyl Group (R-C(=O)-O-H), Suffix: '-oic acid' e.g Methanoic Acid.
Structural Isomers: Have the same MOLECULAR FORMULA but different STRUCTURAL FORMULA, I.E, they have the same atoms but they are arranged different in a molecule.
Functional Group Isomers: Molecules that have the same Molecular Formula but the functional group is different.
Chain Isomers: Have the same molecular formula but the chains of Hydrocarbons are different, e.g Different Branching. Butane or 2-Methylpropane.
Positional Isomers: These have the same molecular formula but the position of a functional group is different. (1-Chloropropane or 2-Chloropropane).
Created by: mjwilson1988



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