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Acids, bases, and solubility rules for AP Chem Unit 1 Exam

Alkali metals are always _____ Soluble
Other soluble ions are: NH4, NO3, ClO3, ClO4, C2H302 Ammonium, Nitrate, Chlorate, Perchlorate, Acetate
O and OH (oxide and hydroxide are generally insoluble except when they are combined with alkali metals, NH4, Ca^2+, Sr^2+, Ba^2+ when they are somewhat soluble
CO3, PO4, S, SO3, C2O4, CrO4 are insoluble except when combined with alkali metals and NH4
Cl^-, Br^-, I^- are soluble except when combined with Ag+, Pb^2+, Hg2^2+
F^- is soluble except when combined with Ca, Sr, Ba, Pb^2+, and Mg
SO4 is soluble except when combined with Ca, Sr, Ba, and Pb^2+
Arrhenius' Acid Base Theory Acids yield a hydrgeon ion and bases yield a hydroxide ion when dissolved in acqueous solution
Bronsted-Lowry Acid Base Theory Acids donate protons, or hydrogen ions; bases accept protons, or hydrogen ions
Solution A homogenous mixture in which a substance is dissolved in another
Solute The substance that dissolves the solute
Solvent The substance that dissolves in the solute
Acqueous Solutions Solutions in which water is the solute
Electrolytes Ions that conduct electricity. Strong acids and bases are strong electrolytes because they completely ionize in water
Precipitates A solid that forms from the reaction of two substances in acqueous solutions
What is Ksp? Ksp is the K equation for the solubility product that is formed. It is usually very small because only fractional amounts of insoluble solids are actually soluble in water.
What is a complex ion? What makes it more stable? A complex ion is formed by a metallic ion and a Lewis base. The charge of the metallic ion determines how many anions will bond to it (it will be double). The larger the exponent, the more stable it is.
What is the Kw equivalent to? Kw: 1.0x 10^-14 Use this to solve for Kb if given a Ka by division.
What must you do to the pOH to solve the pH? Subtract from 14
If the base is not 1.0M (as in 1.0x 10^-3), then the exponent will not be the pH because of differences in molar concentration, what must you do? Negative log it! -log()
Lewis acid-base theory Acids accept electrons, and bases donate electrons. Whatever is an Arrhenius or Bronsted acid or base, is the same by Lewis' definition as well.
When are ice boxes used? When there is a weak acid or base involved, because only partial dissociation occurs. When it is strong, assume there is 100% ionization.
Trick to remember what to do when the acid/base is weak for an ice box? The ionization is so small, that the x is largely negligible. Only 1-10% will actually ionize.
What are the 7 strong acids? HCl, HBr, HI, H2S04, HNO3, HClO4, H3PO4
What are the 7 strong bases? Ba(OH)2, Ca(OH)2, LiOH, NaOH, KOH, RbOH, CsOH
Why is HF not a strong acid, but the rest of the halogens are? HF has hydrogen bonds!
What makes an acid/base strong, rather than weak? The more polar an acid/base is, the stronger it will be because the H+ will come right off, creating ions
If heat were added, would the pH of water still be 7.0x 10^-4? No, the water would be more acidic.
What does neutralization really mean? Neutralization means that the moles of acid= the moles of base?
What is special about the half-titration point? pH= pKa
What are the scenarios in which pH=pKa? 1. A perfect buffer 2. pH= pKa 3. The pH change (exponent) of the indicator's color
When looking at a titration curve, when can you expect a bump, meaning a buffer has formed? When a weak acid or base is involved, when the acid is di or triprotic, and if the acid is originally in the beaker.
What equation should you use to calculate the pH of a buffer solution? Henderson-Hasselbalch pH= pKa + log(S/A)
When calculating the pH during a titration, what must always be the first step? Find the number of moles used (moles times volume) and then subtract to find which one is left over.
When a strong acid and a strong base are mixed, what are the results? Water and a neutral salt
Why do strong acids/bases burn? Because they are ionizing on your skin, and changing the pH by donating or accepting excess hydrogens.
When writing net ionic equations, what are the only things that ionize? Strong substances and aqueous solutions. Leave the rest alone, and there must always be a driving force: the evolution of a gas, or the formation of a precipitate
Created by: Rehnuma32219