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# Moles for AP Chem

### Definitions pertaining to moles and stoichiometry for AP Chem

How do you convert to moles from grams? Divide by the molar mass of the element or compound
How do you convert from moles to number of particles? Multiply the number of moles by 6.02x10^23.
How do you convert from number of particles to the weight of a single particle? Divide the number of atoms by 6.02x10^23
How do you convert moles of a gas to liters? Multiple by 22.4L when gases are at Standard Temperature and Pressure (STP)
Percent Composition Formula (part/ total) times 100
Empirical Formula The simplest, most reduced form of the molecular formula. Calculate by finding the mole to mole ratio of each element in the compound, divide by the GCF, and round.
Molecular Formula The formula that states exactly how many atoms of each element are in each molecule of the compound.
How can you find the molecular formula given the empirical formula and the molar mass of the substance? Find the mass of the empirical formula and divide the molar mass by that number. Distribute the number to all the elements in the compound, and that is the molecular formula.
Chemical Reactions When elements and compounds come together (or apart) to produce new elements and compounds
Synthesis When two elements or compounds combine to form a single compound
Decomposition When a single compound breaks down into two or more elements or compounds
Single Replacement When a separate metallic element takes the place of the cation in the compound
Double Replacement When two compounds react the cations of each element change places, replacing each other.
Balancing Mass is neither created nor destroyed, so imbalanced equations can be misleading in that they show atoms just disappearing. Coefficients must be applied that are distributed to every element to prevent the loss or creation of mass
How do you balance equations? Add coefficients to each of the reactants and products so the number of atoms on each side are the same.
What do the coefficients in front of the elements and compounds in chemical equations represent? The mole to mole ratio of how many moles of each reactant are needed for how many moles of the products.
Limiters A lack of materials, elements or compounds, that prevent more of the products being made
Excess Reagents After a chemical reaction is complete, the reactant that is left over
Theoretical Yield How much of the compound was supposed to be made if everything went perfectly; based off of mathematical calculations
Actual Yield How much of the compound was produced in the lab. It can be different from the theoretical yield because not everything in nature is perfect or there could be contamination.
Molarity The concentration of a substance The formula is: M (molarity)= moles/volume in Liters
Dilution Decreasing the concentration by adding water. The formula is: M1V1=M2V2
Created by: Rehnuma32219