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Matter for AP Chem

Matter definitions for Unit 1 in AP Chem

Solid -Definite shape and volume -Not easily compressed because particles are close together -Expand very slightly when heated
Liquid -Definite volume, but indefinite shape -Not easily compressed because particles are slightly close together -Expand slightly when heated
Gas -Indefinite shape and volume -Easily compressed because particles are far apart -Expand greatly when heated
Mixture Matter that has varying composition
Substance Matter that has a uniform and definite composition
Homogenous A single phase in which components are distributed evenly throughout
Heterogenous A mixture with multiple phases or layers in which components are not evenly distributed
Elements The simplest form of matter with unique properties, and they cannot be broken down any further
Compounds Two or more elements that are combined in a fixed whole number ratio. They can be separated into their constitutive elements by a chemical change
Decanting Pouring off the top layer from the bottom layer by taking advantage of difference in densities
Filtering To separate a solid from a liquid by using a funnel and filter paper. The solid will remain, and the liquid will pour through
Distillation When multiple liquids are mixed homogenously, you can boil each off because of difference in evaporation points
Chromatography Small samples of a mixture are placed on filter paper, and then placed in a wet container. As the sample rises to the top, it will separate each component out by differences in solubility.
Why will distillation not work with two liquids? It does not work with two liquids because both will pour through without separating
Chemical Change It must change into a new substance entirely. Examples: burning, reacting
Physical Change The chemical composition will not change Examples: Phase changes, breaking, grinding
Chemical Properties The ability of a chemical to react or undergo change
Physical Properties Measurable and observable properties of a substance that do not require changing the composition
Law of Conservation of Mass During any chemical reaction, matter cannot be destroyed or spontaneously created. If a gas is produced, the mass of the gas must also be taken into account.
Extensive Properties Dependent on the amount of matter. Ex: mass, volume, length
Intensive Properties Dependent on the type of matter Ex: color, density, conductivity
Qualitative Appearance or behaviors that are not measured; observations Ex: color, texture, luster
Quantative A mathematical description Ex: mass, volume, temperature, desnity
Created by: Rehnuma32219