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CH 2&3 Sci MT- CH.4

Cells & Their Functions, Chem Matter & Life

Science that deals with the composition of matter Chemistry
Elements, atoms, molecules, compounds, mixtures are? Fundamental forms of matter
Substance from which all matter is made Element
Fundamental Unit that makes up chemical elements Atom
no charge neutron
positive charge proton
negative charge electron
If outermost energy level has less than four electrons but greater than 8, the atom will complete level by gaining electrons nonmental
If outermost shell hass less than four electrons, the atom normally loses electrons to complete level. Metal
combination of two or more atoms molecule
Molecules formed by the union of two or more different atoms Compound
Compound made of few elements Simple Compound
Compound made of many elements Complex Compound
Blends of two or more substances Mixture
Mixture in which component substances remain evenly distributes Solution
Mixture in which material distributed in the solvent settles out unless constantly shaken suspension
mixture in which the particules don't dissolve but remain dissolved in the solvent because they are so small Colloidal suspension
Dissolving substance solvent
The substance that is dissolved Solute
+ charge ion cation
- charge ion anion
opposites attract, + atom comes in contact with a - atom and - gains electrion from + Ionic bond
sharing involves sharing of electrons between the atoms in the molecule Covalent Bond
Chemical substance capable of donating a hydrogen ion to another substance Acid
Chemical substance usually containing a hydrogen ion, that can accept a hydrogen ion Base
Chemnicals that maintain balance Buffers
All chemical compounds that characterize living things Organic Compounds
simple sugars used for energy Carbohydrates
fats made from glycerol in combo with fatty acids lipid
May contain nitrogen, sulfer, and phosphorus. Structural materials of the body such as muscle, bone, connective tissue, and hair, eye, skin pigment Building block=Amino acids Protein
Function as catalysts Enzymes
Shape is important, Must match the shape of the substance with which the enzyme combines Lock and Key Method
Basic unit of all life. Simples structure that shoes all life characteristics cell
two sets of lenses used in most labs modern compound light
combo of magnifications and enlargement can magnify up to one million times or more transmission electron
three demensional picture, Magnification approx 250,000 scanning electron
outer covering of cell made up mainly of a double layer of lipid molecules plasma membrane
main substance that fills cells and hold cell contents. suspension of nutrients minerals enxymes and other specialized material in H20 Cytoplasm
little organs specialized structures perform different tasks Organelles
control center of a cell nucleus
inside nucleus, act in manufacture of proteins nucleolus
protein formations ribosomes
network of membranes endoplasmic reticulum
bean shaped, power house mitochrondia
rod shaped, cell division centrioles
contains digestion enzymes lysosomes
forms special substances released from cells golgi apparatus
consists of three items, phosphate unit, nitrogen base, sugar unit nucleotide
contant movement from high concentration to lower concentration diffusion
diffusion of water through semipermeable membrane osmosis
passage of water containginb dissolved material through a membrane as a resut of a mechanical force on one side filtration
molecules move in the opposite direction than would normally flow active transport
engulging large particles by cell membrane phagocytosis
engulging droplets of fluid by cell membrane (cell drinking) Pinocytosis
solutions have the same concentration of molecules as the fluids with in the cell isotonic
solution is less concentrated than intracellular fluid therefore cell placed in this solution will draw water in, swell, and burst hypotonic
solution has higher concentration than cell fluids therefore cell loses water and shrinks hypertonic
morph/o form
cyto/o cell
nucle/o nucleus
kary/o nucleus
hist/o tissue
fibr/o fiber
reticul/o network
aden/o gland
papill/o nipple
myx/o mucus
muc/o mucus
somat/o small body
blast/o immature cell
gen origin, formation
phag/o eat, ingest
phil attract
plas formation
trop act on, affect
troph/o feeding growth, nourishment
-ase enzyme
-ose sugar
hydr/o water
gluc/o glucose
glyc/o sugar, glucose
sacchar/o sugar
amyl/o starch
lip/o fat
adip/o fat
steat/o fatty
prote/o protein
Created by: sheena0252