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Chapter 1

Matter and Measurements

A systematic approach to research Scientific Method
A tentative explanation for a set of observations Hypothesis
A concise statement of a relationship between phenomena that is always the same under the same conditions Law
A unifying principle that explains a body of facts and/or those laws that are based on them Theory
Anything that occupies space and has mass Matter
A form of matter that has a difinite composition and distinct properties Substance
Composition of the mixture is the same throughout Homogenous Mixture
Composition is not uniform throughout Heterogeneous
Means can be used to separate a mixture into its pure components Physical
A substance that cannot be separated into simpler substancesby chemical means Element
A substance composed of atoms of two or more elements chemically united in fixed proportions Compound
Does not alter the composition or idnetity of a substance Physical change
alters the composition or identity of the substance involved Chemical change
Depends on how much matter is being considered Extensive property
Does not depend on how much matter is being considered Intensive property
Mass/Volume Density
how close a measureent is to the true value Accuracy
how close a set of measurements are to each other precision
all the digits in a measurement that are known with certainty plus a last digit that must be estimated significant figures
Matter is neither created nor destroyed Law of Conservation of Mass
A given compound always contains the same relative numbers and kinds of atoms Law of Constant Composition
Different ratioes of the numbers and kinds of atoms give rise to different compounds Law of Multiple Proportions
Measured mass/charge of electrons Thompson
Measured mass of electron Millikan's Experiment
Protons have opposite charge of electrons Rutherford's E.
determined atomic # Moseley
electrons pass from the cathode to the anode cathode ray tube
determined the magnitude of the electric charge of the electron Millikan
Measured the charge to mass ratio e/m Thomson
developed the nuclear model of the atom Rutherford
Established that protons are not evenly distributed throughout an atom Gold Foil E.
Neutrons Chadwick
compounds that have a certain number of water molecules attached to them hydrates
Created by: JessieKincer