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Chem Chap 5 Sec 3

Electron Configuration and Periodic Properties

The size of an atom is defined by what the edge of its orbital
What is one way to express an atom's radius measure the distance between the nuclei of two identical atoms that are chemically bonded together, then divide this distance by two.
May be defined asw one-half the distance between the nuclei of identical atoms that are bonded together atomic radius
The atomic radii decrease from ________ across a __________ and increase ____________________ left to right across a period; increase down a group
The trend to smaller atoms across a period is caused by the increasing positive charge of the nucleus.
How can an electron be removed from an atom. enough energy has to be supplied. Equation is A + energy --> A+ +e-
What does A+ represent in the energy equation ion of element A with a single positive charge referred to as a 1+ion
An atom or group of bonded atoms that has a positive or negative charge ion
Any process that results in the formation of an ion is referred to as ionization
The energy required to remove one electron from a neutral atom of an element ionization energy, IE (or first ionization energy IE)
What is done to avoid influence of nearby atoms on the measurement of ionization Ionization energies are made on isolated atoms in the gas phase
Group 1 metals have the __________ first ionization energies in their respective periods lowest
What is the major reason for the high reactivity of the Group 1 (alkali) metals Electron loss
What group has the highest ionization energies Group 18 elements, the noble gases,
True or False: ionization energies of the main-group elements decrease across each period False
Increasing nuclear charge is responsible for what increasing ionization energy and decreasing radii across the periods.
Does nonmetals have higher ionization energies than metals Yes
Among the main groups, ionization energies _______ down the groups decrease
The energies for removal of additional electrons from an atom are referred to as the second ionization energy (IE2), third ionization energy IE3, & so on.
Each successive electron removed from an ion feels an increasingly stronger effective _____ nuclear charge (the nuclear charge minus the electron shielding)
The energy change that occurs when an electron is acquired by a neutral atom is the atom's electron affinity
Which element gains electrons most readily halogens
What is the major reason for the high reactivities of the Group 17 elements The ease with which halogen atoms gain electrons
How do you know that an atom has released energy when they acquired an electron it will hve a negative valuef
Why does electrons add with greater difficulty down a group It is the result of 2 competing factors. 1st - A slight increase in effective nuclear charge down a group, which increased electron affinities. 2nd - an increase in atomic radius down a group, which decreases electron affinities.
Second electron affinities are positive or negative All positive
A positive ion is know as Cation
The removal of the highest energy level electrons results in a smaller electron cloud
A negative ion is known as anion
The formation of a cation always leads to A decrease in atomic radius
The formatioin of an anion always leads to an increase in atomic radius
Why does the formation of an anion leade to increase in atomic radius The total positive charge of the nucleus remains unchnged when anelectron is added to an atom or an ion.
Cations are smaller or larger than atoms smaller
Anions are smaller or larger than atoms larger
The electrons available to be lost, gained, or shared in teh formation of chemical compounds are referred to as valence electrons
Where are valance electrons often located in incompletely filled main-energy levels.
For main-group elements, the valence electrons are located where In teh outermost s and p sublevels
A measure of the ability of an atom in a chemical compound to attract electrons from another atom in the compound Electronegativity
What are the least electronegative elements alkali and alkaline-earth metals
What are the most electronegative elements nitrogen, oxygen, and halogens
What tends to be the movement of Electronegativities across the periodic table They tend to either decrease down a group or remain about the same
On the Pauling Scale where are electonegative elements located The most-electronegative elements are locared in the upper right of the p-block. The least-electronegativity elements are located in teh lower left of the s block.
The d-block elements are what type of elements metals
As the number of electrons in the d sublevel increases, teh radii increase because of repulsion among the electrons.
atomic radii of the d-block elements _________ across teh periods Decrease
The radii decrease is less than that of the main group elements because the electrons added to the sublevel shield the what outer electrons from the nucleus
Ionic radii ____________ down a group increase
Ionic radii _______________ across a period for cations and for anions decrease
What forms because electrons are lost, gained, or shared between atoms. Chemical compoundf
What holds atoms together in chemical compounds Valence electrons
Created by: tbstinso



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