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Chapter 7

Chemical Bonding

the number of electrons found in the outermost energy level of an atom---in the s and p orbitals valence electrons
electrons within an atom responsible for chemical bonding valence electrons
when sodium combines chemically with chlorine, how does sodium become more stable by losing an electron to chlorine the atom becomes a positive ion and has a total of 8 valence electrons
when chlorine combines chemically with sodium, how does chlorine become more stable by gaining an electron the atom becomes a negative ion with a total of 8 valence electrons
when a neutral atom loses an electron the atom is transformed into __________ a positive ion
a positive ion is called a ________ cation
when a neutral atom gains an electron the atom is transformed into _________ a negative ion
a negative ion is called an anion
the Lewis structure for sodium chloride is [Na]^+[Cl]^-
an ion is formed when an atom either __________ or ____________ an electron loses, gains
in the formation of sodium chloride, what keeps the ions together the attraction the positively charged ion has for the negatively charged ion and vice versa
an _______________ is formed when an electron is transferred from one atom to another atom ionic bond
atoms held together by ionic bonds form a ________ __________ crystal structure
explain how magnesium and fluorine combine chemically the metallic atom will transfer a total of two electron. one electron will be transferred to two separate fluorine atoms. the nonmetal atoms become negatively charged and the other atom becomes a positive ion
Why do atoms transfer and accept ions from each other to fulfill the octet rule meaning that the atom or ion has at least 8 valence electrons
what is the octet rule atoms combine chemically in order to have a full outside energy level or have at least 8 electrons in the outside energy level
by what process is a fluorine molecule formed the two f atoms have 7 valence electrons, six electrons are paired and one unpaired. by the sharing the tow unpaired electrons both atoms in effect have 8 electrons in the outside energy level
the ___________ _________ represent a pair of electrons being shared between two atoms bond line
the electrons within an atom that are not involved in the bonding process are called the _________ ______ none bonding pair
the sharing of valence electrons between two atoms is called ________ ________ covalent bonding
a covalent compound is sometimes called a _______ ________ molecular compound
ionic compounds are not made of ___________ molecules
what must happen in order for two oxygen atoms and one carbon atom to form a molecule the carbon atom has two pairs of shared electrons with each oxygen atom
draw the Lewis structure for carbon dioxide molecule O=C=O
when two atoms share a total of 4 electrons (two pairs of shared electrons) the bond is called a ________ double bond
when two atoms share a total of 6 electrons (three pairs of shared electrons) the bond is called a ______ triple bond
list the steps involved in writing a Lewis structure 1. count the number of valence electrons involved for each atom in the compound. 2. determine the number of needed electrons for full octets 3. needed electrons - valence electrons then divide by 2-----gives you the total number of bonds needed in t
compound forming crystals ionic compounds
compound having high melting and boiling points ionic compounds
compounds that shatter when struck ionic compounds
compounds that are soluble in water ionic compounds
compounds that are electrolyte ionic compounds
substance that dissolve in water releasing ions and conducting electricity electrolytes
compounds that are not electrolyte covalent compounds
compounds that are gases, liquids or solids covalent compounds
compounds that generally don't dissolve in water covalent compounds
compounds that are often flammable covalent compounds
metals have __________ electrons free mobile valence
metals form a weak ________ ________ similar to ionic compounds crystalline structure
because of the weak crystalline structure of metals, the metal itself can be considered to be ___________ and ___________ malleable, ductile
mixtures composed of two or more elements (usually metals) are known as ____________ alloys
alloys have properties that are often ___________ to those of their component elements superior
compounds that are flammable are usually __________ compounds covalent
atoms that share electrons equally form a _________ bond nonpolar covalent
atoms that share electrons unequally, form a ________ bond polar covalent
the bond formed by the sharing of a single pair of electrons is called a __________ bond single covalent
the bond formed by the sharing of 2 pairs of electrons is called a ____________ bond double covalent
the atoms held together by sharing electrons are joined by ___________________ . covalent bond
a neutral group of atoms joined together by covalent bond is a _______________ molecule
a compound composed of molecules is called a ______ molecular compound
_______________________ compounds tend to have relatively lower melting and boiling points than ionic compounds molecular compound
a _________________ shows how many atoms of each element a molecule contains molecular formula
in covalent bonds, electron sharing usually occurs so that atoms attain the ________________ of noble gases electron configuration
a pair of valence electrons that is not shared between atoms is called an ________________ unshared pair
a _________________________________________ is a covalent bond in which one atom contributes both bonding electrons. coordinate covalent bond
a _________________________ is a tightly bound group of atoms that has a positive or negative charge and behaves as a unit polyatomic ion
the energy required to break the bond between two covalently bonded atoms is known as the _____________________________________ bond dissociation energy
a large bond dissociation energy corresponds to a stong __________________ covalent bond
a _____________________- is a structure that occurs when it is possible to draw two or more valid electron dot structures that have the same number of electron pairs for a molecule or ion. resonance structure
the octet rule cannot be satisfied in molecules whose total number of valence electrons is and _____________________ odd number
when two atoms combine, it is assumed that their atomic orbitals overlap to produce a _______________, or orbitals that apply to the entire molecule molecular orbitals
a molecular orbital that can be occupied by two electrons of a covalent bond is called a __________________ bonding orbitals
when two atomic orbitals combine to form a molecular orbital that is symmetrical around the axis connecting the tow atomic nuclei, a ________________is formed sigma
___________________ bond can be formed when 2 s or 2 orbitals overlap sigma
in a ___________________, the bonding electrons are most likely to be found in sausage-shaped regions above and below the bond axis of the bonded atoms pi bonds
which type of molecular bond is considered to be the weakest pi bonds
in _____________________, several atomic orbitals mix to form the same total number of equivalent hybrid orbitals. hybridization
____________________ bonds are attractive forces in which a hydrogen covalently bonded to a very electronegative atom is also weakly bonded to an unshared electron pair of another electronegative atom hydrogen
____________________- bonds are the strongest of the intermolecular forces. hydrogen