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Chpt 6

chapter 6 chemistry

QuestionAnswer
Mendeleev arranged the elements in his periodic table in order of increasing ___________ _________ atomic mass
In the modern periodic table, elements are arranged in order of increasing ________ _________. atomic number
the number of periods in the periodic table 7
three classes of elements metals, nonmetals, metalloids
_______________ are good conductors of electricity and heat metals
________________ have a luster or shine metals
________________ are malleable metals
___________________ are solids at room temperature metals
________________are poor conductors of electricity nonmetals
_________________ are brittle (easily broken) nonmetals
_________________________ most are gases at room temperature nonmetals
___________________ are elements that have properties that are similar to those of metals and nonmetals metalloid
_____________ are the elements found in group 1A alkali metals
_______________ are the elements found in group2A alkaline metals
________________ are the elements found in group 7A halogens
group 8a are called the _________ ______ noble gases
these elements are sometimes called the inert gases noble gases
in these elements, the s and p sublevels are completely filled with electrons noble gases
in this elements, the s and p sublevels are not completely filled representative elements
one half the distance between the nuclei of two the distance between two nuclei of the same element when the atoms are joined atomic radius
in general, the atomic size ___________ from top to bottom with a group and __________ from left to right across a period. increases, decreases
as the atomic number increases within a group, the number of ________ _______ ______ increase. occupied energy levels
moving from left to right in a period, the atomic size generally _________. decrease
moving from top to bottom in a group, the atomic size generally ________. increases
positive and negative ions form when electrons are ________ between atoms transferred
an ion with a positive charge cation
an ion with a negative charge anion
energy required to remove an electron from an atom ionization energy
energy required to remove the first electron is the ______________ first ionization energy
first ionization energy tends to ___________ from top to bottom with a group decrease
for an atom, moving from left to right in a period, first ionization energy generally _________ increase
for an atom, moving from top to bottom in a group, first ionization energy generally ___________. decrease
_______________ are always smaller than the atoms from which they form. cations
__metals/nonmetals______ ions are always larger than the atoms from which they form. nonmetals
the ability of an atom of an element to attract electrons when the atom is in a compound electronegativity
electronegativity __decreases/increases________ from top to bottom with a group decreases
electronegativity values tend to ____increase/decrease______ from left to right across a period increase
1. elements arranged in order of increasing mass 2. elements grouped vertically by similar properties 3. left blank spaces, predicting future elements mendeleeve periodic table
what is found on the periodic table that separates nonmetals from metals staircase line
only metal that is a liquid mercury
these elements are opaque metals
d block of elements transition metals
these elements generally do not react chemically with other elements noble gases
the numbers above each group tells you the number of ________ ________ valence electrons
a measure of how strongly a nucleus attracts its valence electrons electron affinity
how many electrons do atoms seek to attain in their outermost energy level? a full energy level would be best, but at least 8 electrons is also desirable
this bond is composed of anions and cations ionic bond
this bond can be formed by having electrons transferred from one atom to another atom ionic bond
what is a crystal structure? geometric pattern of ions found within ionic compounds forming a crystalline structure
what is a diatomic molecule? a molecule consisting of two atoms of the same element
this bond is formed by the sharing of electrons covalent bond
which type of chemical bond produces a compound consisting of molecules covalent bond
the number of electrons shared in a single covalent bond 2
the number of electrons shared in a double covalent bond 4
the number of electrons shared in a triple covalent bond 6
what does the term "delocalized electrons" mean? valence electrons in metal atoms are free to move around forming a "sea of electrons" around positively charged ions
what is electronegativity? the attraction a nucleus has on a pair of shared ions.
what is an alloy? a homogeneous mixture composed of two metals
what is a dipole? two or more regions within a molecule having partial negative and partial positive charge. due to one nucleus being more electronegative than the second nucleus.
What is a polar bond? a bond produced by the unequal sharing of electrons between two atoms
what is a nonpolar bond? a bond formed the sharing of electrons between identical atoms, or due to the symmetrical geometric arrangements of the molecule (CH4)
nonpolar covalent bonds have an electronegativity difference of _____________ less than .4
ionic bonds have an electronegativity difference of ______________ greater than 1.6
this type of compound has a high melting point ionic
this type of compound has a brittle nature ionic
this type of compound may be flammable covalent
this type of compound is a nonelectrolyte covalent
this type of compound is an electrolyte ionic
this type of compound may be a solid, liquid or gas covalent