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-Chemical Reactions-

Chemistry Chapter 4

a substance, such as sodium chloride, that dissolves in water to give an electrically conducting solution electrolyte
a substance, such as sucrose, or table sugar (C12H22O11), that dissolves in water to give a nonconducting or very poorly conducting solution nonelectrolyte
an electrolyte that exists in solution almost entirely as ions strong electrolyte
an electrolyte that dissolves in water to give a relatively small percentage of ions weak electrolyte
a chemical equation in which the reactants and products are written as if they were molecular substances, even though they may actually exist in solution as ions. molecular equation
a chemical equation in which strong electrolytes (such as soluble ionic compounds) are written as separate ions in the solution complete ionic equation
an ion in an ionic equation that does not take part in the reaction spectator ion
an ionic equation from which spectator ions have been canceled net ionic equation
an insoluble solid compound formed during a chemical reaction in solution precipitate
a reaction between compounds that, when written as a molecular equation, appears to involve the exchange of parts between the two reactants. exchange (metathesis) reaction
a dye used to distinguish between acidic and basic solutions by means of the color changes it undergoes in these solutions acid-base indicator
a substance that produces hydrogen ions, H+, when it dissolves in water acid (Arrhenius)
a substance that produces hydroxide ions, OH-, when it dissolves in water. base (Arrhenius)
the species (molecule or ion) that donates a proton to another species in a proton-transfer reaction acid (Bronsted-Lowry)
the species (molecule or ion) that accepts a proton in a proton-transfer reaction base (Bronsted-Lowry)
an acid that ionizes completely in water; it is a strong electrolyte strong acid
an acid that is only partly ionized in water; it is a weak electrolyte weak acid
a base that is present in aqueous solution entirely as ions, one of which is OH-; it is a strong electrolyte strong base
a base that is only partly ionized in water; it is a weak electrolyte weak base
a reaction of an acid and a base that results in an ionic compound and possibly water neutralization reaction
an ionic compound that is a product of a neutralization reaction salt
an acid that yields two or more acidic hydrogens per molecule polyprotic acid
either the actual charge on an atom in a substance, if the atom exists as a monatomic ion, or a hypothetical charge assigned by simple rules oxidation number (oxidation state)
a reaction in which electrons are transferred between species or in which atoms change oxidation number oxidation-reduction reaction (redox reaction)
one of two parts of an oxidation-reduction reaction, one part of which involves a loss of electrons (or increase of oxidation number) and the other a gain of electrons (or decrease of oxidation number) half-reaction
the part of an oxidation-reduction reaction in which there is a loss of electrons by a species (or an increase in the oxidation number of an atom) oxidation
the part of an oxidation-reduction reaction in which there is a gain of electrons by a species (or a decrease of oxidation number of an atom) reduction
a species that oxidizes another species; it is itself reduced oxidizing agent
a species that reduces another species; it is itself oxidized reducing agent
a reaction in which two substances combine to form a third substance combination reaction
a reaction in which a single compound reacts to give two or more substances decomposition reaction
a reaction in which an element reacts with a compound, displacing another element from it displacement reaction (single-replacement reaction)
a reaction of a substance with oxygen, usually with the rapid release of heat to produce a flame combustion reaction
the moles of solute dissolved in one liter (cubic decimeter) of solution molar concentration (molarity) (M)
the determination of the amount of a substance or species present in a material quantitative analysis
a type of quantitative analysis in which the amount of a species in a material is determined by converting the species to a product that can be isolated completely and weighed gravimetric analysis
a procedure for determining the amount of substance A by adding a carefully measured volume of a solution with known concentration of B until the reaction of A and B is just complete titration
a method of analysis based on titration volumetric analysis
Created by: 723851979



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