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the ability to do work or physically influence surroundings because of position, chemical state or nuclear state. energy
Einstein's mass-energy equivalence equation. E=mc^2
any electromagnetic or particulate radiation that has sufficient energy to remove an electron from an atom. ionizing radiation
the procedure of confining the x-ray beam to the area of anatomic interest to limit patient radiation dose. collimation
this is the phosphor with which Roentgen was experimenting with when he discovered x-rays. barium platinocyanide
the year x-rays were discovered. 1895
the year Roentgen won the Nobel Prize in physics. 1901
true/false: mass fluctuates with gravitational influence. false
what is the purpose of x-ray beam filtration? to remove low energy x-rays from the beam; lower patient dose
what does ALARA stand for? as low as reasonably achievable
name 3 sources of naturally occurring radiation. cosmic, terrestrial, internally deposited radionuclides
what naturally occurring radiation source is the #2 cause of lung cancer in the United States in non-smokers? radon gas
3 fundamental units of measurement. length, mass and time
secondary quantities that are derived from a combination of one or more of the 3 base quantities. derived quantity
quantities derived from the base quantities that are used only in specialty areas of science. special quantity
Newton's first law inertia
the rate of change of velocity with time acceleration
the transfer of thermal energy from one position to another by a moving fluid medium (liquid or gas) convection
the force applied to an object multiplied by the distance over which it is applied work
the rate of change of position with time; aka speed velocity
Newton's second law force
equation for force F=ma
equation for velocity v=d/t
equation for acceleration a=(vf-vo)/t
Newton's third law action/reaction
equation for momentum p=mv
equation for power P=work/t or P=Fd/t
when dividing fractions, you must ____ the second fraction then multiply. invert
when adding fractions, you must first find a _____ ______. common denominator
to multiply fractions, simply _____ numerators and denominators. multiply
to convert a fraction into a decimal, _____ the numerator _____ the denominator. divide, by
measurement unit used to calculate radiation intensity in the air. Roentgen
measurement unit used to calculate occupational exposure. rem
measurement unit used to calculate radioactivity. curie
SI equivalent of the R. air kerma or Gray in air
SI equivalent of the rad. gray
SI equivalent of the rem. Seivert
SI equivalent of the curie. becquerel
any quantum of electromagnetic radiation. it has no mass and no charge. photon
positively charged beta particle. positron
nuetrons and protons nucleon
arrangement of all known elements into rows and columns. the rows relate to the number of electron shells present; the columns relate to the number of electrons in the outermost shell. periodic table
time required to reduce radioactivity to half its original value. radioactive half-life
innermost electron shell K shell
the nucleus of a helium atom- 2 neutrons and 2 protons. alpha particle
atoms that have the same atomic number but different atomic mass numbers. isotope
atomic nuclei that have the same atomic mass but different atomic numbers. isobar
atoms that have the same number of neutrons but different number of protons. isotone
atoms that have the same atomic number and the same atomic mass number. isomer
the force that keeps an electron in orbit. centripetal force
no outer shell can contain more than __ electrons. 8
in the equation 2n^2, n represents what? shell number
in a normal state, atoms possess this charge. 0
the smallest particle that has all of the properties of an element. atom
the number of protons in an atom. atomic number
the number of protons and the number of neutrons in an atom. atomic mass number
symbol for atomic number Z
symbol for atomic mass A
atoms of various elements combine to form this. molecule
any quantity of one type of molecule compound
the smallest particle of a compound molecule
an electron emitted from the nucleus of a radioactive atom. beta particle
for what is Mendeleev remembered? periodic table
who developed the concept of the atom as a miniature solar system? Neils Bohr
list the fundamental particles within an atom. electron, protons, neutrons
unit of measurement for velocity m/s
unit of measurement for acceleration m/s2
unit of measurement for force N
unit of measurement for weight N or lb
unit of measurement for momentum kgxm/s
unit of measurement for work J
unit of measurement for power J/s or W
unit of measurement for energy (kinetic or potential) J
fundamental building block of matter atom
what group would the element Lithium (z=3) be in? I
What period would the element Sodium (z=11) be in? 3
define kinetic energy object in motion
define potential energy energy by virtue of position
define ionization removal of an electron from an orbital shell
Thomas Edison's assistant Clarence Daly
What year did the first person die from overexposure to radiation? 1904
contribution of Greeks to atomic theory 4 elements made up everything: earth air fire water; came up with the name ATOM
contribution of Dalton to atomic theory hook and eye
contribution of Thompson to atomic theory Plum pudding model
contribution of Rutherford to atomic theory electron cloud model
each shell in an atom has a different _____. binding energy
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