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# RADT 334- UNIT 1

Question | Answer |
---|---|

the ability to do work or physically influence surroundings because of position, chemical state or nuclear state. | energy |

Einstein's mass-energy equivalence equation. | E=mc^2 |

any electromagnetic or particulate radiation that has sufficient energy to remove an electron from an atom. | ionizing radiation |

1/1000 of a rad. | mrad |

average level of natural environmental radiation in mrads/year. | 300 |

the procedure of confining the x-ray beam to the area of anatomic interest to limit patient radiation dose. | collimation |

this is the phosphor with which Roentgen was experimenting with when he discovered x-rays. | barium platinocyanide |

the year x-rays were discovered. | 1895 |

the year Roentgen won the Nobel Prize in physics. | 1901 |

true/false: mass fluctuates with gravitational influence. | false |

name 4 examples of electromagnetic radiation. | x-rays, gamma rays, visible light, radiowaves, microwaves, infrared radiation, ultraviolet radiation |

what is the purpose of x-ray beam filtration? | to remove low energy x-rays from the beam; lower patient dose |

what does ALARA stand for? | as low as reasonably achievable |

name 3 sources of naturally occurring radiation. | cosmic, terrestrial, internally deposited radionuclides |

what naturally occurring radiation source is the #2 cause of lung cancer in the United States in non-smokers? | radon gas |

3 fundamental units of measurement. | length, mass and time |

secondary quantities that are derived from a combination of one or more of the 3 base quantities. | derived quantity |

quantities derived from the base quantities that are used only in specialty areas of science. | special quantity |

Newton's first law | inertia |

the rate of change of velocity with time | acceleration |

the transfer of thermal energy from one position to another by a moving fluid medium (liquid or gas) | convection |

the force applied to an object multiplied by the distance over which it is applied | work |

the rate of change of position with time; aka speed | velocity |

Newton's second law | force |

equation for force | F=ma |

equation for velocity | v=d/t |

equation for acceleration | a=(vf-vo)/t |

Newton's third law | action/reaction |

equation for momentum | p=mv |

equation for power | P=work/t or P=Fd/t |

when dividing fractions, you must ____ the second fraction then multiply. | invert |

when adding fractions, you must first find a _____ ______. | common denominator |

to multiply fractions, simply _____ numerators and denominators. | multiply |

to convert a fraction into a decimal, _____ the numerator _____ the denominator. | divide, by |

measurement unit used to calculate radiation intensity in the air. | Roentgen |

absorbed dose measurement unit. | rad |

measurement unit used to calculate occupational exposure. | rem |

measurement unit used to calculate radioactivity. | curie |

SI equivalent of the R. | air kerma or Gray in air |

SI equivalent of the rad. | gray |

SI equivalent of the rem. | Seivert |

SI equivalent of the curie. | becquerel |

any quantum of electromagnetic radiation. it has no mass and no charge. | photon |

positively charged beta particle. | positron |

nuetrons and protons | nucleon |

arrangement of all known elements into rows and columns. the rows relate to the number of electron shells present; the columns relate to the number of electrons in the outermost shell. | periodic table |

time required to reduce radioactivity to half its original value. | radioactive half-life |

innermost electron shell | K shell |

the nucleus of a helium atom- 2 neutrons and 2 protons. | alpha particle |

atoms that have the same atomic number but different atomic mass numbers. | isotope |

atomic nuclei that have the same atomic mass but different atomic numbers. | isobar |

atoms that have the same number of neutrons but different number of protons. | isotone |

atoms that have the same atomic number and the same atomic mass number. | isomer |

the force that keeps an electron in orbit. | centripetal force |

no outer shell can contain more than __ electrons. | 8 |

in the equation 2n^2, n represents what? | shell number |

in a normal state, atoms possess this charge. | 0 |

the smallest particle that has all of the properties of an element. | atom |

the number of protons in an atom. | atomic number |

the number of protons and the number of neutrons in an atom. | atomic mass number |

symbol for atomic number | Z |

symbol for atomic mass | A |

atoms of various elements combine to form this. | molecule |

any quantity of one type of molecule | compound |

the smallest particle of a compound | molecule |

an electron emitted from the nucleus of a radioactive atom. | beta particle |

for what is Mendeleev remembered? | periodic table |

who developed the concept of the atom as a miniature solar system? | Neils Bohr |

list the fundamental particles within an atom. | electron, protons, neutrons |

unit of measurement for velocity | m/s |

unit of measurement for acceleration | m/s2 |

unit of measurement for force | N |

unit of measurement for weight | N or lb |

unit of measurement for momentum | kgxm/s |

unit of measurement for work | J |

unit of measurement for power | J/s or W |

unit of measurement for energy (kinetic or potential) | J |

fundamental building block of matter | atom |

what group would the element Lithium (z=3) be in? | I |

What period would the element Sodium (z=11) be in? | 3 |

define kinetic energy | object in motion |

define potential energy | energy by virtue of position |

define ionization | removal of an electron from an orbital shell |

Thomas Edison's assistant | Clarence Daly |

What year did the first person die from overexposure to radiation? | 1904 |

contribution of Greeks to atomic theory | 4 elements made up everything: earth air fire water; came up with the name ATOM |

contribution of Dalton to atomic theory | hook and eye |

contribution of Thompson to atomic theory | Plum pudding model |

contribution of Rutherford to atomic theory | electron cloud model |

each shell in an atom has a different _____. | binding energy |