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Organic Compounds

Inorganic Compounds Generally defined as compounds that lack carbon (except CO2 and CO)
Organic Compounds Generally distinguished by the fact that they contain carbon
Three facts about organic compounds/compounds that contain carbon? -Carbon chains are the backbone for many substances in living cells. -Each compound can be expressly suited for a particular function or structure -There are four major groups of organic compounds
What are the four major groups of organic compounds? 1)Carbohydrates 2)Lipids 3)Proteins 4)Nucleic Acids
3 Facts about Carbohydrates? -Hydrophilic -a source of energy that can be quickly mobilized -less than 3% of our body weight
What are monosaccharides? the simplest carbohydrates
Name the 3 monosaccharides 1)glucose (blood sugar) 2) fructose (fruit sugar) 3)galactose
What do monosaccharides and disaccharides have in common? they are both "simple sugars" they are both sweet.
Isomers Compounds with the same formula but a different arrangement of atoms in the molecule.
What is the formula for all monosaccharides? C6H12O6
Disaccharides sugars composed of two monosaccharides
What are the 3 Disaccharides? 1)Sucrose (cane sugar) 2)Lactose (milk sugar) 3)Maltose (found in germinating wheat)
Polysaccharides 10 to hundreds of monosaccharides joined together in a straight or branched chain
What do Glycogen, Starch and Cellulose have in common? (besides being polysaccharides) They are not sweet and they are all composed solely of glucose
Glycogen Energy-storage polysaccharide that animals manufacture and store
What is glycogen composed of? Composed of many glucose molecules joined together in a chain
Where is glycogen manufactured and stored? in the liver & muscle
How is glycogen produced and why? After meals (when blood glucose is high), liver cells produce glycogen, so that in between meals it can break glycogen down and draw from it to maintain blood sugar levels
Starch energy-storage polysaccharide that plants manufacture and store
How is starch produced and why? when sunlight and nutrients are readily available, plant cells produce starch, so that it can draw from it when photosynthesis is not possible (i.e. at night, winter)
Example of starch; significance to human diet potatoes; starch is the only significant digestible polysaccharide in the human diet
Cellulose a structural polysaccharide that gives strength to cell walls of plants
Three facts about cellulose? 1)principal component of wood, cotton & paper 2) we can not digest it 3) the most abundant organic compound on earth.
Besides being a source of energy (carbohydrates digested to glucose, which is oxidized to ATP), carbohydrates have OTHER functions as well.... Carbohydrates are often conjugated with (covalently bound to) proteins & lipids
Glycolipids lipids with a carbohydrate attached. found on the external surface of a cell
Glycoproteins Proteins with a carbohydrate attached. Major component of mucus.
Proteoglycans 1)Macromolecules that form gels that help hold cells and tissues together 2)lubricate joints 3) Account for the tough rubbery texture of cartilage
Lipids: 5 facts? -form essential structural components of all cells -hydrophobic -variable in structure -more calories per gram than carbohydrates -10-12% of our body weight
Triglycerides "neutral fats" 3 fatty acids bound to a glycerol by dehydration synthesis.
Draw a triglyceride? just draw the glycerol as a rectangle with three fatty acids coming off (looks like the letter E)
2 Facts about triglycerides? -found in adipose (fat) cells; (provide thermal insulation & shock absorption for vital organs) -most plentiful lipids in the body
Phospholipids "modified triglycerides" instead of one fatty acid they have a phosphate group which is linked to other functional groups.
Draw a phospholipid? don't forget polar/hydrophilic head with two nonpolar/hydrophobic tails
2 facts about phospholipids? -used to make up the cell membrane -have a polar & nonpolar end (hydrophilic and hydrophobic end)
Steroids Ringed lipids
Cholesterol The most important molecule in our steroid chemistry. It is the "parent" steroid from which the other steroids are made.
Where does cholesterol come from? only 15% of cholesterol comes from the diet, the other 85% is internally synthesized.
is cholesterol bad for us? Cholesterol is a natural product of the body and is necessary for human health. It is an important component of cell membranes and is required for proper nervous system function
What are the Fat Soluble vitamins? They are essential for many normal functions. A, D, E, K
Vitamin A eye function
Vitamin D promotes uptake of calcium in the small intestine
Vitamin E wound healing
Vitamin K synthesis of proteins responsible for blood clotting
Proteins Amino acids held together by peptide bonds
How many amino acids are there? There are 20 different amino acids (half we eat = "essential", the rest we manufacture)
protein chains? -Some proteins are just a few amino acids long (i.e. hormones), others are very long chains
How proteins are integrated in body -most abundant organic components of the human body -roughly 100,000 different types of proteins -much more complex in structure and function than carbohydrates or lipids -20% of our body weight
Structural role of proteins Proteins are cellular building blocks
Physiological role of proteins 1)enzymes = "biological catalysts" that speed up reactions in the body 2)Hormones = "chemical regulators" secreted into the bloodstream that change or regulate the body 3)Antibodies = related specifically to immunity
Shape of enzymes Enzymes have to be a very specific shape (that can only be achieved through hydrogen bonding combined with a very specific amino acid sequence).
"lock & key" In almost every case, the function of a protein or enzyme depends on its ability to recognize and bind to some other molecule. EX: the enzyme (key) Sucrase can only fit with/"act" on the substrate Sucrose (Lactase breaks down Lactose, Maltase & Maltose
Nucleic Acids polymers of nucleotides
Nucleotides Organic compounds with three principal components: 1)Nitrogenous base 2)a 5-carbon sugar 3)one or more phosphate groups
What do nucleotides make up? Nucleotides make up DNA & RNA. DNA is the largest of the nucleic acids: it is double helix structure of nucleotide chains held together by hydrogen bonds.
the only polysaccharide synthesized in the human body is_____ glycogen
the arrangement of a polypeptide into a fibrous or globular shape is called its quaternary structure
which of the following functions is more characteristic of carbohydrates than of protein: -contraction -energy storage -catalyzing reactions -immune defense -intercellular comunication energy storage
dietary antioxidants are important because they neutralize _____ free radicals
any substance that increases the rate of a reaction without being consumed by it is a/an _____. In the human body, _______ serve this function catalyst, enzymes
the suffix ___ denotes a sugar, while the suffix ____ denotes an enzyme -ose, -ase
the amphiphilic lipids of cell membranes are called ____ phospholipids
a substance acted upon and changed by an enzyme is called the enzyme's ____ substrate
a- not
aero- oxygen (aerobic)
amphi- both (amphiphilic)
caloro- heat (calorie)
collo- glue (colloid)
hydro- water (hydrolysis)
-mer part (polymer)
mono- one (monomer)
oligo- few (oligosaccharide)
-philic loving (hydrophilic)
Created by: kalmetina