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Chap. Test 13,14,15

Accel. 8th grade Chapters 13-15 Test Study Guide

What is the joining of atoms to form new substances? Chemical Bonding
What is so important about chemical bonding? The properties of the new elements are different from properties of the original elements.
What is an interaction that hold two atoms together? Chemical Bond (When these form, electrons are shared, lost or gained)
What is a filled valence shell in MOST cases? 8 electrons
What are electrons in the outermost level of an atom? Valence electrons
True or False? Noble Gases don't usually form chemical bonds. True
What are the three types of bonds? Ionic, covalent, metallic
What is a bond that forms when electrons are transferred from one atom to another? Ionic Bond (Remember: Ionic bonds are mostly between metals and nonmetals)
What are charged particles that form when an atom gains or loses electrons? Ions
True or false? Electrons that are closer to the nucleus have more energy. False; Electrons that are FARTHER from the nucleus have more energy.
What group gives off most energy as it gains electrons? Halogens
What is the regular pattern into which a crystal is arranged? Crystal Lattice
When does crystal lattice happen? When ions bond
What are properties of ionic compounds? Brittleness, High boiling and melting points
What is a bond formed when atoms share one or more parts of electrons? Covalent bond
What are properties of covalent bonds? Brittleness, low melting and boiling points
What is a group of atoms held together by chemical forces and is made up by covalent bonds? Molecule
True or False? A molecule is neutral. True
What is the main difference between ionic and covalent bonds? Ionic bonds take and give away electrons; covalent shares electrons
What are diatomic elements? Molecules made of 2 atoms
What is a bond formed by attraction between positively charged metal ions and electrons around them? Metallic Bond
What do metallic bonds do when they bond? They overlap outermost energy levels.
What properties do metallic bonds give metals? electrical conductivity, malleability, ductility
What is a process by which one or more substances undergo change to produce one or more different substances? Chemical Reaction (Totally new properties)
What four things help you know a chemical reaction is occurring? gas formation, solid formation, color change, energy change (endo- or exo-thermic)
What is a solid formed in a solution as a result of a chemical reaction? Precipitate
What is a shorthand method of identifying an element? Chemical Symbol
What is a shorthand notation for a compound or diatomic element that uses chemicals? Chemical Formula
What are the rules for writing chemical equations? 1. Accuracy 2. Substances are written correctly 2a. Using proper chemical symbol, and looking for diatomic elements 2b. Determine covalent or ionic 3. Equation must be balanced
What are the four types of chemical reactions? Synthesis, Decomposition, Single Displacement, Double Displacement
What happens in a synthesis reaction? 2 or more substances combine to form a single compound
What happens in a decomposition reaction? A single compound breaks down to form 2 or more simpler substances
What happens in a single displacement reaction? An element takes the place of another element that is part of a compound
What happens in a double displacement reaction? Ions in 2 compounds switch places
What are some important things to know about acids? They increase the number of hydrogen ions when dissolved in water, the solution tastes sour, can change the color of compounds
Acid Properties? Sour taste, corrosive, many poisonous, react with some metals to make hydrogen gas, adding acid to baking soda can make CO2 electric current
What are some types of acids? Sulfuric acid, nitric acid, hydrochloric acid, citric acid, carbonic acid
What are some important things to know about bases? They are any compound that increases the number of hydroxide ions when dissolved in water, have and electric current, bitter, color is a change indicator
True or false? Acids and bases neutralize each other. True
True or false? You pour acids into bases. True
Created by: 1363097164