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Chem Chap 4 - Sec 2

The Quantum Model of the Atom

the photoelectric effect and hydrogen’s emission-line spectrum revealed what that light could behave as both a wave and a particle
bending of a wave as it passes by the edge of an object or through a small opening Diffraction
occurs when waves overlap Interference
How are electrons detected Electrons are detected by their interaction with photons
states that it is impossible to determine simultaneously both the position and velocity of an electron or any other particle. Heisenberg uncertainty principle
describes mathematically the wave properties of electrons and other very small particles. Quantum theory
the principle that states that determining both the position and velocity of an electron or any other particle simultaneously is impossible Heisenberg uncertainty principle
specify the properties of atomic orbitals and the properties of electrons in orbitals Quantum numbers
first three quantum numbers result from solutions to the Schrödinger equation indicate indicate the main energy level, the shape, and the orientation of an orbital
The fourth number, the spin quantum number,describes a fundamental state of the electron that occupies the orbital
symbolized by n, indicates the main energy level occupied by the electron principal quantum number,
Values of n in teh Principal quantum number are what type of integer Positive integers only
As n increases the electron’s energy and its average distance from the nucleus increase
The total number of orbitals that exist in a given shell, or main energy level is equal to n2.
symbolized by l, indicates the shape of the orbital angular momentum quantum number
For a specific main energy level, the number of orbital shapes possible is equal to n
The values of l allowed are zero and all positive integers less than or equal to n − 1.
The Orbital Letter Designations According to Values are L = 0 and L = 1; 1 = P; 2 = d; 3 = f
What shape corresponds to the s orbital spherical
What shape corresponds to the p orbital dumbbell shapes
what shape corresponds to the d orbital It is more complex
How can Atomic orbitals be similar and different Similar shape but different orientations around the nucleus
What is symbolized by m which indicates the orientation of an orbital around the nucleus magnetic quantum number
What values correspond to m Whole numbers including zero, from -l to +l
the number of orbitals at each main energy level equals the square of the principal quantum number, n2
has only two possible values—(+1/2 , −1/2)—which indicate the two fundamental spin states of an electron in an orbital spin quantum number
A three dimensional region around the nucleus that indicates the probable location of an electron. Orbital
Created by: tbstinso