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# Chem Chap 4 - Sec 2

### The Quantum Model of the Atom

Question | Answer |
---|---|

the photoelectric effect and hydrogen’s emission-line spectrum revealed what | that light could behave as both a wave and a particle |

bending of a wave as it passes by the edge of an object or through a small opening | Diffraction |

occurs when waves overlap | Interference |

How are electrons detected | Electrons are detected by their interaction with photons |

states that it is impossible to determine simultaneously both the position and velocity of an electron or any other particle. | Heisenberg uncertainty principle |

describes mathematically the wave properties of electrons and other very small particles. | Quantum theory |

the principle that states that determining both the position and velocity of an electron or any other particle simultaneously is impossible | Heisenberg uncertainty principle |

specify the properties of atomic orbitals and the properties of electrons in orbitals | Quantum numbers |

first three quantum numbers result from solutions to the Schrödinger equation indicate | indicate the main energy level, the shape, and the orientation of an orbital |

The fourth number, the spin quantum number,describes | a fundamental state of the electron that occupies the orbital |

symbolized by n, indicates the main energy level occupied by the electron | principal quantum number, |

Values of n in teh Principal quantum number are what type of integer | Positive integers only |

As n increases | the electron’s energy and its average distance from the nucleus increase |

The total number of orbitals that exist in a given shell, or main energy level is equal to | n2. |

symbolized by l, indicates the shape of the orbital | angular momentum quantum number |

For a specific main energy level, the number of orbital shapes possible is equal to | n |

The values of l allowed are | zero and all positive integers less than or equal to n − 1. |

The Orbital Letter Designations According to Values are | L = 0 and L = 1; 1 = P; 2 = d; 3 = f |

What shape corresponds to the s orbital | spherical |

What shape corresponds to the p orbital | dumbbell shapes |

what shape corresponds to the d orbital | It is more complex |

How can Atomic orbitals be similar and different | Similar shape but different orientations around the nucleus |

What is symbolized by m which indicates the orientation of an orbital around the nucleus | magnetic quantum number |

What values correspond to m | Whole numbers including zero, from -l to +l |

the number of orbitals at each main energy level equals | the square of the principal quantum number, n2 |

has only two possible values—(+1/2 , −1/2)—which indicate the two fundamental spin states of an electron in an orbital | spin quantum number |

A three dimensional region around the nucleus that indicates the probable location of an electron. | Orbital |