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Chem. Chapter 8

vocab for Ch. 8

pauli exclusion principle no two electrons in an atom can have the same quantum numbers
Z effective the effect of nuclear charge: higher nuclear charge lowers orbital energy (stablizes the system) by increasing nucleus-electron attractions
electron configuration how the electrons are distributed among the various atomic orbitals in an atom
hund's rule when filling orbitals in the same subshell, maximize the number of parallel spins
Aufbau Principle lower n orbitals fill first, each orbital hods two electrons: each with different m(s): half-fill degenerate orbitals before pairing electrons
ionization energy amount of energy required to remove an electron from the ground state of gaseous atom or ion (Ei or IEi)
electron affinity energy change that occurs when an electron is added to an isolated atom in the gaseous state
metals have a shiny luster, various colors, wlthough most are silvery, solids are malleable and ductile, good conditions of heat and electricity, most meatal oxides are ionic solids that are basic, tend to form cations in aqueous solution
nonmetals do not have a luster, various colors, solids are usually brittle, some are hard, some are soft, poor conductors of heat and electricity, most nonmetal oxides are molecular substances that form acidic solutions; end to form anions or oxyanions in aqueous s
Created by: dee_roberts_1223