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Chem. Chapter 6

vocab for Ch. 6

energy the ability to do work or transfer heat: energy= work + heat
work energy used to cause an object that has mass to move
heat evergy used to cause temperature of an object to rise
potential energy energy an pbject posseses by virtue of its position of chemical composition
kinetic energy energy an object posesses by its motion: KE= 1/2 mv^2
chemical energy the energy stored within bonds of chemical substances
radiant energy comes form the sun and is earth's primary energy source
thermal energy energy associated with the random motion of atoms and molecules: proportional to Kelvin
nuclear energy energy stored within the collection neutrons and protons in the atom
thermodynamics study of heat and its transformations
thermochemistry branch of thermodynamics that deals with thte heat involved with physical and chemical changes
fundamental premise when energy is transferred from one object to another it apears as work and or as heat
system composed of particles with their own internal energies (E or U)
internal energy of a system, that is the sum of all kinetic and potential energies of all components of a system (E)
heat 2 energy can also be transferred as heat: flows from warmer objects to cooler objects
thermochemistry a study of heat change in chemical reactions: this can be endo- or exo-
heat 3 the transfer of thermal energy between two bodies that are at differenct temperatures
temperature the measure of the thermal energy
First Law of thermodynamics energy is niether created nor destroyed: energy of the universe is constant: if system loses energy must be gained by surroundings and vice versa
pressure force per unit area
state function internal energy of a system is independent of the path by which the system achieved that state
enthalpy heat of a reaction, the internal energy plus the product of pressure and volume
enthalpies of chemical change heats of a reaction; amount of heat exchanged per mole of a substance produced
exothermic heat flows out of the sytem into the surroundings and change of H is a negative sign
endothermic heat flows into the system from surroundings and change of H is a positive sign
calorimetry science of measuring heat changes (q) for chemical reactions
bomb calorimetry measures the heat change at constant volume such that q= change in E
constant pressure calorimetry measures the heat change at constant pressure such that q= change in H
heat capacity amount of heat required to raise the temperature of an object or substance one degree C or K
specific heat amount of heat required to raise one gram of substance by one degree C
molar heat amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 mole of substance 1 degree
Hess's law overall enthalpy change for one reaction is equal to the sum of the enthalpy changes for the individual steps in the reaction
standard heat of formation enthalpy change for the formation of one mole of substance in standard state from its constituent element
thermodynamic standad states most stable form of a substance at one atm and 25 degrees C and one molar concentration for all
Created by: dee_roberts_1223