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Micro Chap 2 Chem.

Chemical Principles

What is the strongest of the three chemical bonds? Covalent Bonds
What is an uncharged particle in the atomic nucleus? Neutron
What is a hydrogen ion? Proton
What is the number of protons in the nucleus? Atomic Number
What are the particles with a negative charge that move in shells around the nucleus? Electron
What is the bond formed by sharing electrons in the outermost shell? Covalent bond
When a weak bond is formed, e.g. by the slight positive charge at the hydrogen end of the water molecule reacting with the negative end of other molecules Hydrogen bond
What bond is formed by the gain or loss of electrons from the outer electron shell? Ionic Bond
What is the substance upon which an enzyme acts? Substrate
A protein that lowers the activation energy required for a reaction Enzyme
What is the sum of the atomic weighs of a molecule's atoms? Molecular weight
what is the collective term for all decomposition reactions Catabolism
Grams equal to molecular weight Mole
collective term for all synthesis reactions anabolism
combining capacity of an atom Valence
ion with a positive charge Cation
one of two molecules with the same chemical formula but different structures Isomer
prevents drastic change in pH buffer
substance that dissociates into ions that are neither OH- no H* Salt
a proton donor Acid
dissociates into one or more negative hydroxide ions, such as OH Base
Combinations of atoms that have gained stability by completing the full complement of electrons in the outermost shell molecule
eight or more glucose molecules in a chain polysaccharide
sterol lipid
fat lipid
production of a molecule of water during synthesis condensation
formed a chain of amino acids protein
lipoprotein conjugated proteins
results from the release of energy of separation of the terminal phosphate group adenosine triphosphate
DNA Nucleic acid
Same number of protons in the nucleus but different weights Isotope
A molecule containing at least two kinds of atoms, such as water (H2O). Compound
An atom that is stable because it has its full complement of electrons. Molecule
The D and L forms of an amino acid Stereoisomer
The substance formed by a reaction Product
Sucrose Disccharide
Soluble in solvents such as ether or alcohol, but not in water lipids
purines or pyrimidines attached to a pentose sugar, but without a phosphate group Nucleoside
Have a hhydrogen-to-oxygen ratio 2:1, a general formula of CH2O Carbohydrate
In DNA, with will pair with guanine Cytosine
In RNA, replaces thymine Uracil
The five-carbon sugar in DNA Deoxyribose
Bonds between amino acids in proteins Peptide
Atoms with the same atomic number are classified as the same... Chemical Number
When discussing synthesis, the combinging substance are called ______________, and the substance formed is the product. reactants
carbon has a valence of? Four
the principle energy-carrying molecule in all cells is called ATP
RNA differs from DNA in being usually ________ stranded single
In a protein, the order of the amino acid sequence is the ___________ level of organization Primary
Thymine and cyosine are single-ring structures called Pryimidines
An example of a nitrogen-containing base in a nucleotide is Adrenal, uracil
The _________ level of protein organization provides it with a three-dimensional shape. Tertiary
About ________ different kinds of amino acids occur naturally in proteins 20
some important characteristics of water are its high _________ and its capacity as a temperature ____________ buffer
cations are positively charged ions; their outer electrons shell is __________ than half filled and they lose electrons less
the minimum collision energy required for a chemical activation energy
neutrons and protons have a weight about 1840 times that of electrons
decomposition yields energy, which is called an __________ reaction exergonic
eight or more glucose molecules in a chain would be described as a polysaccharide
bridges together basic and acidic extremities of amino acids ex. GLYCYLALAN peptide bond
sharing of elements in a chemical bond ex: methane covalent bond
a hydrogen atom covaently bonded to one oxygen or another nitrogen atom :h2o hydrogen bond
gaining or losing of elements on outside shell to gain positive or negative charged atoms Ionic Bond
What are the building blocks of proteins amino acids
what are the building blocks of DNA & RNA Nucleotides
results from the release of energy by separation of the terminal phosphate group ADP
What might be added to a solution to keep the pH from having drastic changes Buffer
What substance or element differentiates organic from inorganic material Carbon
Created by: 169330



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