sugar-phosphate backbone/ bases – adenine, cytosine, guanine and thymine/sequence of bases that encodes genetic information. Single Rings (C/G)
2) Covalent Bond
strongest type of bond, formed by the sharing of a pair of electrons between two adjacent atoms (i.e) A with T and C with G etc. A substantial amount of energy must be expended to break a covalent bond.
3) Noncovalent Bond
weaker than covalent bonds/strong enough to allow for biologically significant molecular interactions, but weak enough to be broken under the right circumstances./ Types of noncovalent bonds include electrostatic and van der Waals interactions.
4) Hydrogen Bond
the hydrogen atom is shared between two electronegative atoms, such as nitrogen and oxygen. Hydrogen donor
5) Electrostatic Interactions
The hydrogen bond is a special case of an electrostatic interaction/The net strength of interaction between two atoms depends on distance that separates them, and surrounding medium in which the molecules exist/Can be either attractive or repulsive.
Acid-Base interactions are important for DNA structure and fxn biologically imp molecules/ pH
the bases w/ the dual ring structure (A and G) are the purines. the purine bases in DNA are missing the “y”
The bases with a single ring structure (C and T) A useful way to remember which bases in DNA are pyrimidines look at the names of the bases. Cytosine and thymine each contain the letter “y”, as does the word “pyrimidine”
they run parallel to each other but with opposite alignments. An example is the two complementary strands of a DNA double helix, which run in opposite directions to one another.
9) Complementary Base Pairing
The standard arrangement of bases in nucleotides in relation to their opposite pairing, such as thymine being paired with adenine and cytosine paired with guanine
Semiconservative replication describes the mechanism by which DNA is replicated in all known cells.
produces 2 copies each contain 1 of original strands and 1 new strand.
way of describing delocalized electrons w/in certain molecules w/ bonding cannot be expressed by one single Lewis formula, but is represented by several contributing structures  (also called resonance structures or canonical forms).
the observed tendency of nonpolar substances to aggregate in aqueous solution and exclude water molecules."water-fearing" describes the segregation and apparent repulsion between water and nonpolar substances, ex oil and water
14)van der Waals Interactions
sum of the attractive or repulsive forces between molecules (or between parts of the same molecule) other than those due to covalent bonds, the hydrogen bonds, or the electrostatic interaction of ions with one another or with neutral molecules
15)van der Waals Radius
the radius of an imaginary hard sphere which can be used to model the atom for many purposes
16)Gibb’s free energy
thermodynamic potential that measures the "useful" or process-initiating work obtainable from a thermodynamic system at a constant temperature and pressure. potential energy is defined as capacity to do work
quantitative measure of the strength of an acid in solution, equilibrium constant for a chemical reaction dissociation of acid-base reactions, quotient of the equilibrium concentrations (in mol/L), weak acid pKa- −2 to 12 in water, strong Acids pKa- <−2
aqueous solution of weak acid and its conjugate base/weak base and its conjugate acid, pH changes little when a small amount of strong acid/base is added, keep pH constant
Conservative replication would leave the two original template DNA strands together in a double helix and would produce a copy composed of two new strands containing all of the new DNA base pairs.
Dispersive replication would produce two copies of the DNA, both containing distinct regions of DNA composed of either both original strands or both new strands.
Three different models proposed for the replication of DNA:
Semi-Conservative, Conservative and Dispersive Replication