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CIRCULATORY SYSTEM

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Question
Answer
What converts CO2 to bicarbonate?   carbonic anhydrase  
How does CO2 get transported?   dissolved CO2, dissolved bicarbonate (major), bound to hemo, bound to plasma px  
What is main fxn of circulatory system?   1. circulation of oxygen, nutrients, hx, ions, and fluids 2. removal of metabolic waste  
Deoxygenated blood returns to the heart through and into?   superior/inferior vena cava --> right atrium  
What is the path for deoxygenated blood to the lungs?   superior/inferior vena cava - right atrium - right ventricle - pulmonary artery - lungs  
What is path for oxygenated blood from the lungs?   lungs - pulmonary vein - left atrium - left ventricle - aorta  
Tricuspid valve   separates right atrium from right ventricle  
Pulmonary valve   separates right ventricle and pulmonary artery  
Bicuspid (mitral) valve   Separates left atrium and left ventricle  
Aortic valve   separates left ventricle and aorta  
What are the 4 major valves?   tricuspid valve, pulmonary valve, bicuspid valve, aortic valve  
Systolic pressure is when blood is _____ and ventricles are _____   being pumped / contracting  
Diastolic pressure is when blood is ______ and ventricles are _______.   not being pumped / relaxing  
What does pulmonary circulation accomplish?   oxygenates blood and gets rid of CO2  
What is pathway for pulmonary circulation?   heart - lungs - back to heart  
What does systemic circulation accomplish?   provides oxygenated blood to rest of body  
What is pathway for systemic circulation?   heart - body - back to heart  
Is there more or less blood pressure in pulmonary vs. systemic circulation?   less  
When oxygen levels are low, vasodilation / vasoconstriction to tissue?   vasodilation  
When oxygen levels are low in lungs, vasoconstriction / vasodilation?   vasoconstriction  
How does blood flow from artery --> vein?   artery - arteriole - capillary - venule - vein  
What are 2 types of arteries?   -elastic artery (lots of elastic tissue) -muscular arteries (lots of muscle)  
What are the components of an artery?   endothelium, smooth muscle, connective tissue  
Is the aorta active in vasoconstriction?   NO  
What is the major fxn of arteriole?   controls blood flow to capillaries and vasoconstriction  
What is the most important site for vasoconstriction?   arteriole  
What is the importance of vasoconstriction?   determines which tissues get more blood  
Is capillary involved with vasoconstriction?   NO  
What is the capillary made of and what is it's major fxn?   -single cell thick endothelium -blood-tissue solute exchange  
Is there vasoconstriction in a venule? In a vein?   NO / SOME  
What is major fxn of venule?   merge of capillaries to be conducted to veins  
What is a vein made of and what is major fxn?   -endothelium, smooth muscle, connective tissue -return blood back to heart  
Only _______ (arteries / veins) have valves   veins  
Rank thickness between artery, arteriole, vein, venule, capillary   artery > vein > arteriole > venule > capillary  
Blood pressure is highest in the ______.   arteries (esp. aorta)  
Blood pressure is lowest in ________.   veins (esp. vena cava)  
Why is BP lowest in veins?   flow resistance brings pressure down  
What hx increase BP?   ADH, aldosterone, renin, adrenaline  
Is your blood ever not flowing?   NO --> elasticity of arteries  
What are the 2 adaptations that help blood flow even at low pressure?   respiratory pump and muscular pump  
What are continuous capillaries? Where are they found?   -no pores --> may have clefts at cx boundaries -skin and muscles  
Fenestrated capillaries? Where are they found?   -have small pores that are large enough for nutrients and hx but not for blood cx -found in small intestines, kidneys, endocrine organs  
What are sinusoidal capillaries? Where are they found?   -large pores so blood cx and lymphoscytes can pass -found in lymphoid tissues, liver, spleen, bone marrow  
What are 3 layers of centrifuged blood?   plasma, buffy coat (WBCs, platelets), RBCs  
What is plasma made of?   water, px, electrolytes, gases, nutrients, wastes, hx, ammonia  
What is the most abundant cx in the body?   red blood cx  
Why does red blood cx have biconcave shape?   no nucleus, greater gas exchange, easier travel  
What does hemoglobin transport?   O2 and CO2  
Are platelets cx?   NO --> cx fragments  
Where are RBCs made and what are they made from   -bone marrow / stem cx  
Where are RBCs destroyed?   spleen**, liver, bone marrow  
What are the 3 components of hemoglobin?   iron, heme, px (globin)  
What happens to the iron, heme, globin of hemoglobin during recycling?   -iron = recycled -heme --> bilirubin --> bile --> excreted in feces -globin = broken down to a.a.  
Where are blood clotting factors produced?   liver  
What is the general clotting mechanism?   platelet plug formation, coagulation, retraction and repair  
What is the main coagulation factor?   fibrinogen --> fibrin!  
hematocrit   % volume that is RBC = 45%  
Each iron in a hemo can bind ____ oxygen.   one  
_____ binds oxygen tighter than hemoglobin.   myoglobin  
_____ binds hemoglobin tighter than oxygen   carbon monoxide  
What is hemo's lower oxygen affinity associated with?   lower pH and higher temperature  
When interstitial fluid pressure > lymphatic pressure, what happens?   lymph vessels open and interstitial fluid enters lymphatic capillaries  
When interstitial fluid < lymphatic pressure, what happens?   lymph vessel flaps close and prevents lymph from leaking out  
What is a lacteal?   lymphatic capillary in small intestine  
Where are lymphocytes produced?   bone marrow from blood stem cx  
Why are there lymphocytes in lymph tissue?   cleans and filters the lymph  
What is lymph?   stuff that leaks out of capillaries (water, px, WBC, chemicals)  
Are there any RBC in lymph system?   NO --> only WBC  
What is the source of lymph?   blood plasma from capillaries - interstitial fluid - lymph - returned to blood  
Deoxygenated blood from the head and neck returns to the heart via_______.   superior vena cava  
Deoxygenated blood from lower body returns to heart via __________.   inferior vena cava  
hepatic portal system   connects vasculatures of intestines and liver  
hypophyseal portal system   connects vasculatures of hypothalamus and pituitary in brain  
semilunar valve   -valve btwn arteries and ventricles --> prevent backflow of blood  
BP in right atrium is _____.   zero  
cardiac output   total blood volume pumped by ventricle in one minute  
What closes during a systole?   AV valves  
What closes during a diastole?   semilunar valve  
myogenic activity   heart can fire w/o any descending input from nervous system  
Contraction begins at SA node in right atrium and goes through...   atria - AV node - bundle of His - Purkinje fibers - ventricles  
What kind of junctions are found in heart?   electrical synapses from gam junctions  
What slows the pace of the SA node?   vagus nerve  
Where is bundle of His located?   located in walls separating ventricles  
What is the problem with faster heartbeats?   less time for blood to enter heart during relaxation  
WHy do athletes have lower heart rate?   have stronger heart and stroke volume (pump more blood volume per beat so heart doesn't have to work so hard)  
What nervous system controls the heart?   autonomic nervous system  
Parasympathetic fibers release ___ to decrease heart rate   AcH  
Sympathetic fibers release ____ to increase heart rate.   norepinephrine  
What causes vasoconstriction in arterioles?   sympathetic innervation  
Which blood vessel regulates BP?   arterioles  
Why can veins carry large amts of blood?   walls stretch but do not recoil  
Where is most blood located?   veins  
Arteries rely on _______, veins rely on ______ to move blood.   elastic smooth muscle / skeletal muscle  
What are some methods for crossing the capillary wall?   pinocytosis, diffusion, fenestratins, clefts  
____ pressure decreases from arteriole to venule.   hydrostatic  
Rank cross-SA areas, arteries, capillaries, veins   capillaries > veins > arteries  
Where does blood move the slowest?   capillaries  
Is blood an ideal flow?   NO  
Where does the largest drop in pressure occur?   arterioles  
stroke volume   liters per beat  
Where is BP highest?   aorta  
Where are antibodies formed?   lymph tissue  
What does albumin do?   -transport f.a. and steroids -regulate osmotic pressure  
Why can't O2 dissolve in aq. env't?   nonpolar  
What don't RBC have ?   no nuclei, mito, organelles  
What kind of respiration do RBC use?   anaerobic --> no mito  
Can RBC divide?   NO  
What is life for a RBC?   120 days  
What kind of mem does a RBC have?   phospholipid membrane  
What is hemophilia?   malfxn in cascade of clotting reactions  
What does thromboplastin do?   prothrombin --> thrombin --> fibrinogen --> fibrin  
What are leukocytes?   cx that have organelles involved in immuen response  
What are the 2 types of leukocytes?   granular leukocytes and agranulocytes  
What is difference btwn granulocytes and agranulocytes?   -granulocytes = nonspecific immunity -agranulocytes = specific immunity  
What do granulocytes include?   neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils  
What do agranulocytes include?   lymphocytes and monocytes (nonspecific)  
What are monocytes?   macrophages that phagocytize foreign matter  
What are monocytes found in the brain called?   microglia  
What does HIV cause loss of?   T-cx  
_____ is the universal recipient blood type and can donate to ______.   Type AB / Type AB -> no antibodies for either  
_____ is the universal donor and receive from_____   Type O / Type O --> makes A and B antibodies though  
What are the 2 major antigen families for blood types?   -ABO antigens -Rh factor  
Where is blood stored?   spleen  
What type of immune cx are the most in the body?   neutrophils  
What is pus?   dead neutrophils and monocytes  
Lymphatic system   -collect excess interstitial fluid and return to blood through large veins in neck -transport px and fats -equalization of fluid distribution  
What kind of system is lymphatic system?   open  
What does lymph empty into?   thoracic duct and right lymphatic duct  
Lymphoma   malignant lymphocytes grow too fast / live too long and produce tumors  
Gas exchange is based upon the equilibrium concentration of ____.   oxygen and carbon dioxide  
How does breathing create thermoregulation?   breathing causes you to lose heat  
What does diaphragm do when contracts?   increases chest volume, creates negative pressure inside lungs  
When somebody gives you mouth-to-mouth, what type of pressure is that?   positive  
Why does surface tension cause lung to collapse?   surface tension wants to create spherical structure  
What reduces surface tension?   surfactants  
Intrapulmonary pressure vs. intrapleural presure   -intrapulmonary = inside lung pressure -intrapleural = intrapleural space pressure  
What does intrapulmonary pressure equal to? Intrapleural pressure?   -atmospheric pressure -less than atmospheric pressure  
What is pressure differential in breathng?   difference btwn intrapulmonary pressure and intrapleural pressure  
What controls respiration?   medulla oblongata  
Why is left lung smaller than right lung?   heart  
Where is cilia found? Problem in microtubule production will affect what?   -respiratory tract, Fallopian, spinal cord -respiration, fertility, circulation of cerebrospinal fluid  
thoracic cavity   has heart and lungs  
intrapleural space   space btwn visceral and parietal layers  
Visceral vs. parietal pleura   -visceral = adjacent to lungs -parietal = adheres to diaphragm and thoracic chest wall  
What forces air into lungs?   pressure diff btwn negative pressure in intrapleural space and high (atmospheric) pressure in lungs  
During inhalation, intrapleural pressure ______. During exhalation, intrapleural pressure ______.   -decrease -increase  
What controls respiration rate?   pH sensitive chemocrx in medulla oblongata  
hypoventilation   lack of breathing, CO2 increases  
hyperventilation   too much breathing, oxygen increases, carbon dioxide decreases  
tidal volume   amount of air htat naturally exhals / inahles  
What does cholera create?   causes GI to secrete a lot of bicarbonate -->metabolic acidosis  
Myoglobin has stronger affinity to oxygen than ____ but weaker than ________.   -hemoglobin -cytochrome oxidase  
The spleen is part of the _____ system.   cardiovascular  
The trachea is part of the ____ system.   respiratory  
What is anemia?   abnormally low conc. of hemoglobin in blood  
Where are lymph nodes found?   groin and neck  
Capillary hydrostatic pressure   causes fluid to leave the cardiovascular system  
tissue hydrostatic pressure   forces fluid back into vascular system  
foramen ovale   allows blood to enter from right atrium to left atrium  
WHy is fetal circulation complicated?   non-functional lungs and liver  
ductus venosus   shunts blood flow of umbilical vein directly into inferior vena cava -allows O2-blood from placenta to bypass liver  
ductus arteriosus   allows blood from right ventricle to bypass fetus' fluid-filled lungs -connects pulmonary artery to aorta  
Does a fetus breathe?   NO --> receives all nutrients from mother  
umbilical vein vs. umbilical artery   oxygenated blood vs. deoxygenated  
carbs and a.a. absorbed in small intestines enter systemic circulation via?   hepatic portal system  
fats that are absorbed by lacteal in small intestine enter systemic circulation via?   thoracic duct  
Where is hydrostatic pressure highest?   capillaries --> pushes out  
What determines blood pressure?   cardiac output and resistance to blood flow  
Hydrostatic pressure vs. osmotic pressure   -pushing out vs. pulling in  
What is ideal flow according to Bernoulli?   non-turbulent flow, laminar flow, incompressible fluids  
What Bernoulli's principle does the cardiovascular match and not mach?   -match: as cross-SA increases, fluid velocity decreases -not match: As cross-SA increases, fluid pressure increases --> fluid pressure is low at capillaries  
Where is blood velocity lowest?   capillaries  
Where is the spleen located and what system is it part of ?   left / cardiovascular  
What side is the liver on?   right  
What organs regulate BP?   heart and kidneys  
What does ANF do?   stimulates elimination of sodium and water by kidneys  
Each heart lub/dub sound correspond to?   closing of a heart valve  
What creates the first sound of a heartbeat?   closing of mitral and tricuspid valves  
What creates the second sound of a heartbeat?   closing of pulmonaric and aortic valves  
What is the main pacemaker of the heart?   SA node  
Pulse pressure   systolic - diastolic pressures  
blood pressure of right atrium   zero  
What is the renin-angiotensin pathway?   -kidneys - renin - angiotensinogen - Angio I - ACE acts on Angio I to convert to Angio 2  
What does Angiotensin 2 stimulate?   aldosterone release from adrenal cortex to act on kidneys to increase sodium and fluid retention  
What are the major factors that influence BP?   blood volume, heart rate, and peripheral resistance to blood flow  
Does an increase in the number of blood vessels increase or decrease BP?   decrease  
The pharynx is part of the ____ and the _____.   digestive system and respiratory tract  
Describe pathway of air into lungs?   nose - pharynx - larynx - trachea - bronchi  
What is the main force that drives the flow of blood?   pressure gradient  
What organ releases erythropoietin? What does it do?   kidneys --> stimulates bone marrow to roduce more blood cx  
What are central chemoreceptors affected by?   changes in CO2 concentration (hydrogen ion)  
What is the only metabolic pathway that produces CO2?   krebs  
Where does reabsorption of most peptides and sugars occur?   proximal convoluted tubule  
Where is the major site for water reabsorption?   loop of henle  
Do both ventricles pump different amounts of blood?   NO --> the same  
Sickle cell anemia   genetic dx that causes red blood cx to collapse when they are not carrying oxygen  
In the atmosphere, what gas percent is the highest?   nitrogen  
Where are the majority of plasma px synthesized at?   liver  
Percentage of red blood cells and plasma.   -erythrocytes -45% -plasma - 55%  
anemia   red blood cx is decreased below normal range  
What synthesizes platelets?   megakaryocites  
What secretes erythropoietin and renin?   kidneys  
What is the largest non-solid organ in the body?   skin  
Does innate immunity become more efficient upon subsequent exposures?   NO  
What does Poiseuille's principle say about flow rate and conduction velocity?   both vary directly with radius^4 and both vary indirectly with length -->short and wide = fastest Q = r^4 / viscosity*length  
How does resistance relate to Poiseuille's principle?   INVERSE R = viscosity*length/r^4  
Where is BP and velocity the highest?   aorta/arteries  
Where is velocity lowest and SA the greatest?   capillaries  
Where is BP lowest?   veins  


   





 
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