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# Praxis II 0014 Scientifc Laws

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scientific law   some statement of fact that is proven time and time again
scientific theory   a statement, which is based upon educated observation, tested and may be proven
conservation of mass/matter   matter cannot be created or destroyed but can be rearranged
conservation of energy   energy remains constant in a system and cannot be recreated, but can change forms
conservation of momentum   total momentum remains the same unless acted upon by an outside force (p=mv)
charge conservation   electric charge can neither be created nor destroyed but is always conserved
Boyle's Law (gas law)   far a specific amount of gas kept at a specific temperature, pressure and volume are inversely proportional (while one increase, the other decrease) (PV=k)
ideal gas law   the state of an amount of gas is determined by its pressure, volume, and temperature (PV=nRT)
mass-energy equivalence (Einstein's Law)   when a body has a mass it has a certain energy even if it is not moving (E=mc^2)
general relativity (Einstein's Law)   general attraction between masses in a result of the nearby masses, gravity has waves
First Law: Law of Inertia (Newton's Law)   as object will remain at rest or in motion unless acted upon be an outside force
Second Law: Law of Acceleration (Newton's Law)   an object will move in the direction of the force applied to it, the object's acceleration is proportional to the force applied to it and inversely proportional to the mass of the object
Third Law: Law of Reciprocal (Newton's Law)   for every action their is an opposite and equal reaction
Fourier's Law [(Law of Heat Conduction) Newton's Law]   the transfer of heat moves through matter from higher temperatures to lower temperatures in order to equalize the differences
General Law of Gravitation (Newton's Law)   describes the gravitational attraction between two masses [f=G(m1m2(r^2)]
Ohm's Law (Electromagnetic Law)   measures voltage and current in electrical circuits; states that the current going through a conductor is equal to the voltage divided by the resistor (I=VR)
Faraday's Law of Induction (Electromagnetic Law)   Explains the ways that voltage can be generated; any change in the magnetic environment of a coil of wire will cause voltage to be produced (EMF)
Natural Selection (Darwin's Law)   individual organisms with favorable traits are more likely to survive and reproduce
Evolution (Darwin's Law)   the world is in a constant state of change
Common Descent (Darwin's Law)   every group of living organisms on earth descend from a common ancestor
Multiplication of Species (Darwin's Law)   Species split into or produce other species depending on geographical location
Gradualism (Darwin's Law)   Changes occur through the slow gradual change of population, not through fast sudden production of new beings
Law of Ellipses (Kepler's Law (planetary motion))   the path of the planets around the sun is an elliptical shape with the center of the sun being at the focus
Law of Equal Areas (Kepler's Law (planetary motion))   the speed of the planet's is constantly changing. a planet moves fastest when it is near the sun and lowest when it is further away
Law of Harmonies (Kepler's Law (planetary motion))   compares the orbital period and the radius of a planet to the other planets; provides an accurate description of the time and the distance for the planets orbit around the sun

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