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Understanding communication disorders and the characteristics surrounding them

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Speech Disorder   Difficulty in producing sounds as well as disorder of voice quality or fluency of speech (p501)  
Language Disorder   Difficulty in receiving, understanding, and formulating ideas and information (p497)  
Receptive Language Disorder   Characterized by difficulty in receiving or understanding information (p499)  
Expressive Language Disorder   Characterized by difficulty in formulating ideas and information (p496)  
Cleft Palate or Lip   A condition in which a person has a split in the upper part of the oral cavity or the upper lip (p494)  
Dialect   A regional variation of a language, as when someone speaks English using term or pronunciations common only in that region (p495)  
Speech   Oral expression of language  
Language   Structures, shared, rule-governed, symbolic system for communicating (p497)  
Phonology   the use of sounds to make meaningful syllables and words (p499)  
Phonemes   Individual speech sounds and how they are produced, depending on their placement in a syllable or word (p499)  
Morphology   The system that governs the structure of words (p498)  
Morphemes   The smallest meaningful unit of speech (498)  
Syntax   Provides rules for putting together a series of words to form sentences (p501)  
Semantics   The meaningful of what is expressed (p500)  
Pragmatics   The use of communication in context (p499)  
Social Interaction Theories   Emphasize that communication skills are learned through social interactions (p500)  
Articulation   A speaker's production of individual or sequences sounds (p493)  
Substitutions   Occur when a person substitutes one sound for another, as when a child substitutes /d/ for the voiced /th/ i.e. "doze" for "those" (p501)  
Omissions   Occur when a child leaves a phoneme out of a word (p498)  
Additions   Occur when students place a vowel between two constants (p493)  
Distortions   Modifications of the productions of a phoneme in a word (p495)  
Apraxia   A motor speech disorder that affects the way in which a student plans to produce speech (p493)  
Pitch   Affected by the tension and size of the vocal folds, the health of the larynx, and the location of the larynx (p499)  
Duration   The length of time any speech sound requires  
Intensity   Loudness or softness based on the perception of the listener and is determined by the air pressure coming from the lungs through the vocal folds (p497)  
Resonance   Determined by the way in which he tone coming from the vocal folds is modified by the spaces of the throat, mouth, and nose (p500)  
Hypernasality   When air is allowed to pass through the nasal cavity on sounds other than /m/, /n/, and /ng/ (p497)  
Hyponasality   Occurs because air cannot pass through the nose and comes through the mouth instead (p497)  
Fluency   The rate and rhythm of speaking (p496)  
Specific Language Impairment   Describes a language disorder with no identifiable cause in a person with apparently normal development in all other areas (p500)  
Organic Disorder   Disorders caused by an identifiable problem in the neuromuscular mechanism of the person (p498)  
Functional Disorder   Disorders with no identifiable organic or neurological cause (p496)  
Congential Disorder   Disorder that occurs at or before birth (p495)  
Acquired Disorder   Disorder that occurs well after birth (p493)  
Oral Motor Exam   The examination of the appearance, strength, and range of motion of the lips, tongue, palate, teeth, and jaw (p498)  
Bilingual   Someone who uses two languages equally well (p494)  
Bidialectal   Someone who uses two variations of a language (p494)  
System for Augmenting Language (SAL)   Focuses on augmented input of language (p501)  


   





 
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Created by: alicia_lynne on 2010-09-20



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