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speech science Exam

COMD 326 Exam 1

Why can't we analyze the spectral changes of a word using a spectrum Spectra don't provide information about time. Speech consists of a constantly changing sequence of different sounds. Individual spectra of speech sounds do not represent the continuously changing sound
What are the three dimensions of a display (spectrogram) that represent the sequence of speech sounds (as in the production of a sentence)? What are the units of measure for each? A display of frequency (Hertz) and amplitude (dB) as they change over time (seconds), or a time/frequency/amplitude display.
How many formants can you distinguish in a spectrogram of a typical vowel? Why do formants get harder to see (lighter in color) as they increase in frequency? In most vowels, we can see at least two formants in a spectrogram (usually 3). Higher formants are usually low intensity.
In what range of frequencies do you expect to find the first formant (F1) in adult vowels? between 200 Hz and 900 Hz
In what range of frequencies do you expect to find the second formant (F2) in adult vowels? between 600 Hz and 2400 Hz
In what range of frequencies do you expect to find the third formant (F3) in adult vowels? between 1800 Hz and 3400 Hz
As you lower tongue and jaw from /i/ to /ae/, how does the first formant frequency change The first formant frequency increases (about 200 Hz to about 800 Hz) as the vowel changes from high /i/ to low /ae/.
he source-filter theory says that vowel category is solely determined by the source, not the filter False
A filter selectively amplifies or diminishes the frequencies of a complex waveform. True
A formant is a resonance of the vocal tract true
a graphic display of sound that shows amplitude versus time waveform
a three dimensional graphic display of sound showing time, frequency, and amplitude spectrogram
a graphic display of sound that shows the amplitude of each frequency from one instant in time spectrum
a change in formant frequency, especially in relation to consonant-vowel or vowel-consonant sequences formant transition
resonance of the vocal tract formant
space between the vocal folds glottis
wavelike motion of the vocal fold cover that occrs during vibration of the folds mucosal wave
air pressure force of air per unit area
coarticulation the articulatory effect one phoneme has on surrounding phonemes
velopharyngeal port the passage that connects the oral and nasal cavities
Fourier analysis any sound signal can be decomposed into a set of sinusoid waves
quasiperiodic almost regular vibration
voice onset time the time between the stop burst and the onset of voicing
/p/ formed by completely occluding the oral cavity, building up intra-oral air pressure by closing the velopharyngeal port. Release air pressure as a burst.
/s/ formed by pushing sufficient airflow through a small constriction in the oral cavity. Intra-oral pressure is obtained by closing the velopharyngeal port. Air flow must create turbulence at the point of constriction
/j/ sometimes called a semi-vowel because of the more open oral cavity and resultant formant structure, this consonant is characterized by articulatory movement.
/t/ formed by completely occluding the oral cavity, building up intra-oral air pressure by closing the velopharyngeal port. Release air pressure as a burst.
/m/ a sonorant consonant produced by occluding the oral cavity and pushing air flow through the nasal cavity.
/v/ formed by pushing sufficient airflow through a small constriction in the oral cavity. Intra-oral pressure is obtained by closing the velopharyngeal port. Air flow must create turbulence at the point of constriction
/h/ formed by pushing sufficient airflow through a small constriction in the oral cavity. Intra-oral pressure is obtained by closing the velopharyngeal port. Air flow must create turbulence at the point of constriction
The lowest frequency of sound present in speech (regardless of who is speaking) is usually called the fundamental frequency
What determines the formant structure of speech sounds, particularly vowels? the length and shape of the vocal tract
Particular frequencies of sound are selectively reinforced when traveling through objects. This property is known as resonance
Process generating a sound that last slightly longer due to interaction of incident and reflected waves. Reverberation is the continuation of a sound in a closed area after the source has stopped vibrating.
when absorption occurs Absorption occurs when a wave is dampened by going through another medium (hitting another mass)
reflection A sound is reflected when it is bounced back and goes in the opposite direction
interference occurs Interference occurs when waves are combined that have different air pressures
the concept of resonance, and explain how an acoustic resonator acts as a filter. Resonance involves specific frequencies that are either amplified or attenuated depending on the resonant frequency. An acoustic resonator filters out some frequencies, while letting others pass through. Different sounds are produced because the resonator
clinical rationale for the development of separate average Fo and Fo variability norms for men, women, and children The average Fo varies depending on the age and sex of a person. Clinical decisions can be made to determine if an individual has a pitch disorder because norms are established for men, women, and children. Frequency variability exists for each person's vo
voice range profile, considered a snapshot of phonatory behavior A voice range profile plots a person's phonational range against the person's dynamic range at different frequencies to determine the physiological limits of a person's voice. Dynamic and phonational frequency ranges are specific to the person's ability t
How can frequency and amplitude measures detect early laryngeal changes in neurological diseases? Give an example of why this is important. Acoustic analysis can detect early changes in vocal production before perceptional changes are heard by the patients. Knowing the vocal signs of neurological disorders can lead to earlier detection and intervention. An example of this is having a small fr
A student sleeping in class snores 90 times in 3 minutes. What is the frequency of snoring in snores per second (sn/s) 0.5 sn/s
A pure tone is always a sinusoidal sound wave
All waves are traveling disturbances that carry energy from place to place. True
The energy of sound is propogated by longitudinal waves
Waves that change direction when they bounce off a barrier are reflected waves
The pitch of a sound increases as it moves toward you and decreases as it moves away from you. This is known as Doppler effect
Sound can travel through solid material True
Destructive interference is when the overlapping of two waves creates damping because the displacements of two waves are in different directions
Sound waves can not occur in a vacuum because there are not any molecules.
amplitude degree of molecule displacement in a wave (height of wave)
elasticity density of the medium
frequency wave cycles in a given unit of time
medium allows energy to pass through
velocity speed of the wave
wave movement of energy through a medium
wavelength distance of one complete wave cycle
Mass The amount of matter present ,Applies to gases, liquids, & solids
Elasticity Property that enables recovery from distortion of shape or volume, All items have an “Elastic Limit”
Air Elasticity Density of air molecules (mass per volume) returns to predistorted value
Inertia All bodies remain at rest or in a state of uniform motion unless another force acts in opposition
Compression crowding of molecules when in motion (density increases)
Rarefaction thinning of molecules when in motion (density decreases)
Period T 1/frequency
Wavelength speed of sound / frequency
FREQUENCY (f) The rate, in Hz, at which a sinusoid repeats itself
Wave interference the constructive or destructive of wave amplitudes when reflected and primary waves hit each other when in different phases.
Sound source (vibration)
Aperiodic (obstruent consonants) turbulent
(quasi)periodic (resonant consonants & vowels) sounding periodic
Natural Frequency (fnat) The frequency with which a system oscillates freely (fnat)
fnat stiffness / mass
Friction limits velocity,Amplitude of vibration diminishes over time,Vibrations are damped,The Magnitude of Damping
Sinusoidal wave pure tones
Complex wave made up of many sinusoidal waves.
Fourier analysis mathematical procedure to identify the individual sinusoidal in a complex wave.
Laminar flow Smooth flow
Turbulent flow Obstacle disturbs airflow
Air volume goes up air pressure goes down
Temporal measurements (duration)
time millisecond
Spectral measurements (frequency)
Frequency Hertz
Displacement Amplitude dB
Spectrogram a representation or photograph of a spectrum x axis is time, y axis is frequency, z axis is amplitude.
Spectrum graph with y axis being frequency, and x axis being amplitude, line spectrum represents periodic sounds, continuous spectrum represent aperoidic sounds.
Waveform graph with time on the x axis and amplitude on the y axis.
Subglottal pressure under the glottis is where the pressure is being built up.
Medial compression bringing the vocal folds to the midline
Mucosal wave undulating wavelike motion of the vocal fold during vibration particularly evident in the cover.
Bernoulli effect aerodynamic law stating that air flow increases through a constriction increases in velocity and decreases in pressure
Myoelastic aerodynamic theory theory that explains vocal fold vibration in terms of muscular,elastic recoil, and aerodynamic forces.
Glottal spectrum spectrum of the laryngeal tone before it is modified in the vocal tract.
Fundamental frequency Repeats itself every period, F0 is determined by rate of vocal fold vibration
Harmonics Whole number multiples of fundamental frequency
Vocal tract Resonance formats
Band pass filter resonator that transmits acoustic energy in a range of frequencies between upper and lower cut off frequencies.
Formants resonance of the vocal tract
Formant One tongue height
Formant Two tongue advancement
Monopthong Open vocal tract,Stable state
diphthong Slow,No narrow constriction,Slow formant transitions between the two component vowels,No stable state is evident
Shimmer cycle to cycle variability in amplitude of vocal fold vibration
Jitter cycle to cycle variability in frequency of vocal fold vibration
Stroboscopy a device for studying the motion of a body, esp. a body in rapid revolution or vibration, by making the motion appear to slow down or stop, as by periodically illuminating the body or viewing it through widely spaced openings in a revolving disk.
Oscilloscope a device that uses a cathode-ray tube or similar instrument to depict on a screen periodic changes in an electric quantity, as voltage or current.
Electroglottograph method of evaluating vocal fold function based on the difference between electrical conductivity of tissue and air.
Created by: kallipso on 2009-02-23

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