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Block 6 amino products, Heme and Bilirubin

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Three specialized products derived from tyrosine?   Thyroid hormones: T3, T4  
Two specialized products derived from Tryptophan?   Serotonin, Niacin (NAD, NADP)  
Two specialized products derived from Arginine?   Creatine (arginine + glycine) & Nitric Oxide  
Two specialized products derived from Glutamate?   Glutamate as a neurotransmitter & GABA  
One specialized product of Histidine?   Histamine  
What three amino acids are essential in the synthesis of purines or pyrimdines?   glycine, glutamine, aspartate  
One specialized product that uses the entire structure of glycine?   Heme  
Where does Heme synthesis occur?   liver  
What are some heme-containing proteins?   hemoglobin, myoglobin, cytochromes (P450, ETC)  
What are some heme-containing enzymes?   peroxidases, catalases  
What 2 enzymes does lead poisoning inhibit?   ALA dehydratase & Ferrochelatase  
What enzyme combines succinyl-CoA and glycine to start the Heme pathway?   ALA (aminolevulinic acid) synthetase  
What is porphyria?   rare enzyme deficiency in the heme pathway  
Why does skin begin chronic inflammation and blistering with porphyria?   UV-light converts accumulated intermeadiates from the Heme pathway  
What is the difference in the concentration of ALA in Vitamin B6 deficiency and lead poisoning?   Ala decreased in B6, increased in Lead poisoning  
From where does bilirubin originate?   older RBCs lysed in spleen, heme released and converted to bilirubin by spleenic macrophages  
How does bilirubin travel from the liver to the gall bladder?   It is insoluble so it rides albumin  
What is a way the hepatocytes make bilirubin more soluble?   conjugate with glucuronic acid, in a UDP-glucuronate...conjugated bilirubin or bilirubin glucuronate  
What does bilirubin contribute to the gall bladder, it's storage site?   green color is due to bilirubin glucuronate  
What makes poop brown?   bilirubin glucuronate conveted to urobilinogen which becomes sterocobilin (stands for brown sheete)  
How could a big pile of feces indicate you had a bile duct blockage?   it would be clay colored  
What makes urine yellow?   Lemonade...or a portion of urobilinogen converted to urobilin and excreted in urine  
Summarize what makes the following colors? Brown Feces, Green Bile, Yellow urine   urobilinogen to stercobilin in feces billirubin glucuronate in gall bladder urobilinogen to urobilin in urine  
You can indirectly measure bilirubin by checking the level of:   unconjugated bilirubin  
What conditions increase indirect/insoluble bilirubin?   Hemolysis from sickle cell, thalassmia, or G6PDH; Crigler - Najar; Gilberts syndrome; Low levels of UDP-Glucuronate in newborn  
What conditions increase direct/soluble bilirubin?   Hepatic damage that results in failure to secrete conjugated bilirubin into bile duct and/or bile duct obstruction  
What causes Jaundice?   increase in indirect or direct bilirubin, or both.  
What is the problem with accumulation of indirect, lipid soluble billirubin?   crosses blood brain barrier to cause death  
Why does conjugated bilirubin not act in this manner?   It is secreted in the urine  
What is total bilirubin?   unconjugated + conjugated bilirubin  
What are three examples of hemolytic crisis?   episodes of hemolysis in G6PDH deficiency Sickle Cell crisis Thalassemia  
What happens in Crigler-Najar syndrome   genetic defect in UDP-glucuronyl Transferase  
What is a symptom of the less severe Gilbert syndrome   inferior sclera is faint yellow  
If you damage your liver through alcoholism, what enzymes are increased in the blood?   AST is greater than ALT  
What increases in viral Hepatitis in the blood?   ALT is greater than AST  


   





 
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Created by: El Diablo on 2010-02-23



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