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Chapter 4

Quiz yourself by thinking what should be in each of the black spaces below before clicking on it to display the answer.

What is anatomy   the study of a body or organism's gross structure  
What is physiology   the science and study of the functions of vital processes mechanisms and functions of an organ or system of organs.  
What is kinesiology   the scientific study of muscular activity and the anatomy physiology and mechanics of movement  
What is histology   a form of microscopic anatomy. It is a branch of biology that studies microscopic structures of tissues and living organisms  
What is pathology   the study of the structural and functional changes caused by disease  
Why is anatomy and physiology important to massage   thereputic massage directly affects the structure and function of the body understanding the relation between structure and function increases the therapist's ability to improve function through specific touch  
what is homeostasis   the balance achieved in the body's internal environment  
why is homeostasis needed   external stresses placed on the body move the body out of balance, which can lead to disease  
what are signs of disease   scientifically observable indications of a diseased state, fever abnormal heart rate or skin color, sweating  
what are symptoms of disease   manifestations of the diseased state perceived by the victim of a condition, cannot be measured by a doctor, dizziness, chills, pain, numbness or fatigue  
what is stress   any psychological or physical situation or condition that causes tension or strain on the body, can be positive or negative moves the body away from homeostasis  
what is pain   primary sensation indicating tissue damage or destruction somewhere in the body  
what is ischemia   reduced blood flow to an area  
What is an infection   most common cause of disease in humans is the invasion of the body by harmful micro organisms ex bacteria, viruses fungi  
what is inflammation   destruction of healthy tissue will result in inflammation which is a protective tissue ersponse characterized by swelling, heat redness and pain  
Sagittal or Parasagittal   divides the body into unequal left and right halves  
Midsagittal or Median   the plane that runs along the midline and divides the body into equal right and left halves  
Coronal or Frontal   the plane that divides the body into Anterior and Posterior halves  
Transverse or Cross Horizontal   the plane that divides the body or a limb into Superior and Inferior halves, not necessary equal  
Superior   Above  
Cranial   Toward the head  
Inferior   lower than another structure  
Caudal   refers to a structure being closer to the feet  
Anterior   refers to a structure being more in front than another structure  
Ventral   pertaining to organs found in the front  
Posterior   refers to a structure being more in the back than another structure  
Dorsal   pertaining to the organs found in the back  
Medial   towards the midline, closer to the median plane than another structure  
Lateral   away from the midline, being farther away from the mdian plane than another structure  
Proximal   nearest to the point of attachment (trunk) LIMBS ONLY, closer to the root of the limb than another structure  
Distal   farthest from the point of attachment (trunk) LIMBS ONLY further away from the root of the limb than another structure IN THAT LIMB  
Dorsal Cavity 2 parts   cranial (brain) and Spinal (spinal cord)  
Ventral Cavity 3 parts   thoracic cavity (heart lungs) abdominal cavity (liver large intestine) pelvic (reproductive, rectum)  
Frontal   Forehead  
Temporal   temples  
cervical   neck  
deltoid   shoulder  
brachial   arm between the elbow and the shoulder  
axillary   armpit  
hypochondrium   below the ribs  
umbilical   naval  
hypogastric   below umbilical region  
patellar   knee  
femoral   thigh  
inguinal   groin  
epigastric   above the umbilical region  
pectoral   chest  
parietal   part of the head that yamaka sits on  
mastoid   behind the ear  
cervical   neck  
scapular   shoulder blade  
lumbar   lower back  
gluteal   buttocks  
popliteal   behind the knee  
Head divided 2 parts   cranium (brain) and face, eyes nose and mouth  
Spine   supports the head and trunk of the body, spinal cord  
Trunk divided 3 parts   thorax -- upper part of the trunk containing the ribs, lungs, heart, espohagus and part of trachea, abdomen and pelvic cavity  
Upper extremities contain...   shoulders, arms wrist and hands  
Lower extremities contain...   hip, thigh, legs, ankles and feet  


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