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1Psychology test one

terms of general psychology

Psychology study of the mind + scientific study of behavior and mental process
Dualism human mind and body are two distinct entities
Early philosophers Aristotle, R.Cart
Wilhelm Wundt Father of psychology (1879) Structuralism, created first lab
Structuralism breaking down mental processes
Functionalism mind shaped by natural selection. Education, environment, ways of life
Gestalt psychology Max Wertheimer ( whole elements ) perception and sensation
William James founder of functionalism
Behaviorism observing measurable change, people and animals
John B. Watson founder of behaviorist movement
Ivan Pavlov classical conditioning
B.F. Skinner operant conditioning, reinforcement and punishment (skinner box)
Sigmund Freud Psychodynamic theory. Emphasized that many important mental processes happen outside the conscious awareness state.
Humanism human nature is inherently good, and people seek to improve. (goal oriented, free will)
Carl Rogers founders of humanistic approach
Abraham Maslow founders of humanistic approach
The Psychological Perspectives biological, evolutionary, cognitive, social, developmental, clinical, individual differences
Five steps in the scientific method (in order) 1.Perceive – to ask questions (research) 2.Hypothesize – predict, educate guess 3.Test – put hypothesis to work, assessment 4.draw conclusions – the product, data, results of test 5.Report, revise, replicate – publish results
Naturalistic observation watching animals or humans behave in their normal environment.
Naturalistic observation (adv realistic picture of behavior
Naturalistic observation disadv tendency of people to behave differently from normal when they’re being observed. (observer effect)
(observer effect) tendency of people to behave differently from normal when they’re being observed
Participant observer a naturalistic observation in which the observer becomes an actual participant in the study.
Observer bias tendency of observer to see what they want to expect.
Blind Observer - people who do not know what research question is. Reduce observer bias.
Laboratory observation watching animals or humans behave in a lab setting
Laboratory observation (adv control over environment, specialized equipment
Laboratory observation disadv – artificial behavior
Case study study of one individual in great deal. Estimate time 6months per person
Case study (adv tremendous amount of detail
Case study disadv cannot apply to other
Surveys researches ask a series of questions about the topic
Surveys (adv data from large numbers of people. Study convert behavior
Surveys disadv people are not always accurate (courtesy bias)
Correlational studies a measure of the relationship between two variables
Positive correlation both go the same direction, more towards +1
Negative correlation both go opposite directions, towards -1
Operational definitions definition variable of inserts that allows it to be directly measured.
Independent variable variable being manipulated *program
Dependent variable depends on the independent effect
Experimental design experimental group / control group)
Exp group being treated on
Control group not being manipulated
Random assignment – randomly assigning subjects to control or experiment group
Placebo effect – phenomenon in which expectation of participants in a study can influence their behavior
Single blind studies subject does not know which group they’re in.
Experimenter effects tendency of experimenter expectation for a study to unintentionally influence results of study
Double blind studies third party is brought to assign groups. Neither the experimenter nor the subjects know the study.
Quasi experimental design not necessarily in experiment form due to lack of resources. Therefore random assignment is used
Nervous system caries info to and from all parts of the body
Neuroscience study of neural structure behavior and learning
Structure of the neuron Neuron,Dendrites,Axon,Myelin,Soma
1. Soma nucleus, life of cell
2. Dendrites branch that receives messages from other cells
3. Axon longest part of the cell. Cell that carries neural message
4. Myelin protects and speeds up communication 270mph
5. Neuron both electrically and chemically. • Resting potential – stable • Action potential – work • Refractory period – back to rest
All or none neuron either fires completely or not at all
The synapse point of communication between to neurons
Neural impulse communication within the neuron itself is electrical; communication between neurons is chemical)
Excitatory neurotransmitter causes receiving cell to FIRE
inhibitory neurotransmitter causes receiving cell to STOP
Neurotransmitters and functions (acetylcholine, serotonin, GABA, glutamate, norepinephrine, dopamine, endorphins)
Central nervous system brain and spinal cord
Three types of neurons Sensory Interneurons Motor
1. Sensory senses to central nervous system (cns)
2. Motor central nervous system (cns) to muscles
3. Interneurons- outnumber all other neurons. Communicate between motor and sensory
Peripheral nervous system – Automatic (involuntary) Somatic (sensory and skeletal)
Autonomic nervous system parasympathetic ns, sympathetic ns)
Parasympathetic conserving energy, calming
Sympathetic fight or flight arousal
Brain structures: Pons Cerebellum Cortex Reticular formation Limbic system Medulla
Pons arousal and sleep dreaming
Cerebellum rapid, fine motor movement, balance, equilibrium
Medulla – life sustaining functions, breathing, swallowing, and heart rate
Reticular formation Selecting attention)
Limbic system hypothalamus, amygdala, hippocampus, thalamus
Cortex outermost layer of the brain, responsible for higher thinking
Corpus callusom spindle fibers that connect the two hemispheres.
Four lobes frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital
1. Frontal lobe decision making and fluent speech
2. Parietal lobe balance *touch, taste, temp
3. Temporal lobe sense of hearing and meaningful speech
4. Occipital lobe visual center of the brain
acetylcholine excitatory and inhibitory. involved in memory and controls muscle contraction
serotonin excitatory inhibitory. involved appetite, mood, and sleep
GABA major inhibitory neurotrans. involved in sleep and inhibits movement
glutamate major excitatory trans. involved in learning, memory formation and nervous system development.
norepinephrine major excitatory. arousal and mood
dopamine excitatory and inhibitory. control movement and pleasure.
endorphins pain relief
Created by: 1574238891