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NASM 4th Ed: Ch 2

NASM 4th Edition: Chapter 2- Basic Exercise Science (Vocabulary)

What is the Human Movement System The Combination and Interrelation of the nervous, muscular, and skeletal Systems.
What is the Nervous System A network of specializied cells called neurons that transmit and coordiante signals, providing a communication network within the human body.
What is the Sensory Function The ability of the nervous system to sense changes in either the internal or external environment, such as a stretch placed a muscle (internal) or the change of walking on sand vs sidewalk (external)
What is the Integrative Function The ability of the nervous system to analyze and interpret sensory information to allow for proper decision making
What is the Motor Function the neuromuscular (nervous and muscular system) response to the sensory information such as causing a muscle to contract when stretched too far, or changing one's walking pattern when walking on sand as opposed to the sidewalk.
What is the Proprioception The cumulative sensory input to the central nervous system from all mechanoreceptors (sensory receptors that respond to outside forces that enable us to detect touch, pressure, sounds,) that sense body position and limb movement
What is a Neuron The functional unit of the nervous system. It processess and transmits information through both electrical and chemical signals.
What is the Sensory (Afferent) Neurons Transmit nerve impulses from effector sites (such as muscles and organs) via receptors to the brain and spinal cord.
What are Interneurons Transmit nerve impulses from one neuron to another
What are Motor (Efferent) Neurons Transmit nerve impulses from the brain and spinal cord to the effector sites (muscles or glands).
What is the Central Nervous System consists of the brain and spinal chord. Its primary function is to coordinate the activity of all parts of the body.
What is the Peripheral Nervous System Cranial and spinal nerves that spread throughout the body. its primary function consists of the (afferent and efferent function above) relaying information from muscles to brain/spinal cord and vise versa.
What is the Mechanoreceptors Sensory Receptors responsible for sensing distortion in the body tissues.
What are Muscle Spindles Receptors sensitive to change in length of the muscle and the rate of that change.
What are Golgi Tendon Organs Receptors sensitive to change in tension of that mucle and the rate of that change
What are Joint Receptors Receptors surrounding a joint that respond to pressure
What is the Skeletal System The Body's Framework
What are Bones Provide a resting ground for muscles and protection of vital organs
What are Joints Junctions of bones
What is the Axial Skeleton Portion of the skeletal system that consists of the skull, rib cage, and vertebral column
What is the Appendicular Skeleton Portion of the skeletal system that includes the upper and lower extremities.
What is Remodeling the process of resorption and formation of bone
What are Osteoclasts A type of bone cell that removes bone tissue.
What are Osteoblasts A type of cell that is responsible for bone formation
What is the Epiphysis The end of long bones
What is the Diaphysis: The shaft portion of a long bone.
What is the Epipyseal Plate The region of long bone connecting the diaphysis to the epiphysis. It is a layer of subdividing cartilaginous cells in which growth in length of the diaphysis occurs
What is the Periosteum: A dense membrane compsed of fibrous connective tissue that closely wraps (invest) all bone
What is the Medullar Cavity The central cavity of boney shafts where marrow is stored.
What is the Articular (Hyaline) Cartilage Cartilge that covers the articular surfaces of bones.
What is the Depressions Flattened or indented portions of the bone
What is the Processes Projections protruding from the bone where muscles, tendons, and ligaments can attach
What is the Vertebral Column A series of irreguraly shaped bones called vertebrae that houses the spinal cord
What is the Arthrokinematics Joint Motion
What is the Synovial Joints Joints that are held together by a joint capsule and ligaments and are most associated with movement in the body
What is the Nonsynovial Joints Joints that do not have a joint cavity
What is the Ligament Primary connective tissue that connects bones together and provides stability
What is the Muscular System Series of muscles that moves the skeleton
What is the Epimysium A layer of connective tissue that is underneath the fascia and surrounds the muscle.
What is the Perimysium The connective tissue that surrounds fascicles.
What is the Endomysium The deepest layer of connective tissue that surrounds individual muscle fibers.
What are Tendons Connective tissue that attaches muscle to bone and provide an anchor for muscles to produce force
What is the Sarcomere The functional unit of muscle that produces muscular contraction and consists of repeating section of actin and myosin
What is Neural Activation The contraction of a muscle generated by neural stimulation
What is the Motor Unit A motor neuron and all of the muscle fibers it innervates
What are Neurotransmitters Chemical messengers that cross the neuro muscular junction to to transmit electrical impulses from the nerve to the muscle.
*What are Sensory (Afferent)Neurons (Top NASM FAQ's Domain) sends impulse FROM a(muscle) TO (brain or spinal cord)
*What are Motor (Efferent) Neurons (Top NASM FAQ's Domain) sends impulse FROM (brain or spinal cord) TO a(muscle)
*What are Golgi Tendon Organs (Top NASM FAQ's Domain) senses muscle tension relaxes the muscles normal reaction to avoid injury
*What are Muscle Spindles (Top NASM FAQ's Domain) senses muscle lengthening contracts the muscle in response normal reaction to avoid injury
Created by: southerngirl