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Vocab Ch. 1

Chapter one vocab - Rubenstein

QuestionAnswer
of or pertaining to space on or near earth's surface (adj.) Spatial
the exact position of an object or place stated in spatial coordinates or a grid system Absolute Location
the position of a place or activity in relation to other places or activities; implies spatial relationships and usually suggests the relative advantages or disadvantages of a location with respect to all competing locations Relative Location
the physical character of a place; the absolute location of a place or activity described by local relief, landforms, and other physical characteristics Site
the relative location of a place or activity in relation to the physical and cultural characteristics of the larger regional or spacial system of which it is part; the location of a place relative to other places Situation
the name given to a portion of Earth's surface Place name (TOPONYM)
the size of an area, from local to global Scale (implied degree of generalization)
natural landscape Physical Attributes
cultural landscape Cultural Attributes
the part of the physical landscape that represents material culture; the buildings, roads, bridges, and similar structures large and small of the cultural landscape Built landscape
successive habitation of the same area over time; builds layer after layer in the region Sequent occupance
a nineteenth and early twentieth century approach to the study of geography that argued that the general laws sought by human geographers could be found in the physical sciences; physical environment caused by human activities Environmental Determinism
the theory that the physical environment may set limits on human actions, but people have the ability to adjust to the physical environment and choose a course of action from many alternatives Possibilism
the movement and flows involving human activity Spatial interaction
the opportunity for contact or interaction from a given point or location, in relation to other locations Accessibility
the directness of routes linking pairs of places; an indication of the degree of internal connection in a transport network; all of the tangible and intangible means of connection and communication between places Connectivity
the areal pattern of sets of places and the routes (links) connecting them along which movement can take place Network
the diminishing in importance and eventual disappearance of a phenomenon with increasing distance from an origin Distance Decay
a measure of the retarding or restricting effect of distance on spatial interaction; the great the distance, the greater the "friction" and the less the interaction or exchange, or the greater the cost of achieving the exchange Friction of Distance
an influence on the rate of expansion diffusion of an idea, observing that the spread or acceptance of an idea is usually delayed as distance from the source of the innovation increases Time-Space Compression
the process of the spread of a feature or trend from one place to another over time Diffusion
the region from which innovative ideas originate Hearth
the spread of a feature or trend through bodily movement of people from one place to another Relocation
the spread of a feature or trend among people from one area to another in a snowballing process Expansion
the spread of a feature or trend from one key person or node of authority or power to other person or place; spread of culture from on important/large area or another important/large area Hierarchical
the rapid, widespread diffusion of a feature or trend throughout a population; person to person spread of culture Contagious
the spread of an underlying principle, even though a specific characteristic is rejected Stimulus
the arrangement of something across Earth's surface Distribution
the total number of people divided by the total area Arithmetic Density
the number of people per unit of area of arable land, which is land suitable for agriculture Physiological Density
a rural settlement pattern characterized by isolated farms rather than clustered villages Dispersed/Scattered
a rural settlement in which the houses and farm buildings of each family are situated close to each other and and fields surround the settlement Clustered/Agglomerated
an area distinguished by a unique combination of trends or features Region
an area in which everyone shared in one or more distinctive characteristics Formal Region (Uniform)
an area organized around a node or focal point Functional Region (Nodal)
an area that people believe to exist as part of their cultural identity Perceptual Region (Vernacular)
a two-dimensional, or flat, representation of Earth's surface or portion of it Map
a distance on a map relative to the distance on earth Map Scale
area, distance, direction , shape Distortion
the system used to transfer locations from Earth's surface to a flat map Projection
the numbering system used to indicate the location of parallels drawn on the globe and measuring distance north and south of the Equator Latitude
the numbering system used to indicate the location of meridians drawn on a globe and measuring distance east and west of the Prime Meridian Longitude
an imaginary line passing through the Royal Observatory at Greenwich, England serving by agreement as the 0 degree line of longitude Prime Meridian
imaginary east-west line that encircles the globe halfway between the North and South Poles Equator
line of longitude Meridian
an arc that for the most part follows 180 degrees longitude, although it deviates in several places to avoid dividing land areas. When you cross it heading east, the clock moves back 24 hrs, and when you cross it going west the calender moves ahead 24 hrs International Date Line
a map that demonstrates a particular feature or a single variable (5 types: dot, isoline, choropleth, proportional symbol) Thematic
a thematic map in which a dot represents some frequency of the mapped variable Dot Map
a thematic map in which ranked classes of some variable are depicted with shading patterns or colors for predefined zones Choropleth Map
a thematic map with lines that connect points of equal value Isoline Map
a map that has been simplified to present a single idea in a diagrammatic way: the base is not normally true to scale Cartogram
a thematic map in which the size or symbol varies in proportion to the frequency or intensity of the mapped variable Proportional symbol Map
the map like the image of the world, country, region, city, or neighborhood a person carries in mind Mental Map (cognitive map)
a geographic region within which the same standard time is used Time Zone
a computer hardware and software system that handles geographically reference data; it uses and produces maps and has the ability to perform many types of spatial analysis Geographic Information System (GIS)
a system that determines the precise position of something on Earth through a series of satellites, tracking stations, and receivers Global Positioning System (GPS)
the acquisition of data about Earth's Surface from a satellite orbiting the planet or other long-distance methods Remote Sensing
a simplified abstraction of reality, structured to clarify causal relationships Model
Created by: icy101 on 2012-08-23



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