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Vitamins and Minerals

Vitamin D Fat soluble “Sunshine vitamin” Fish liver oils, saltwater fish Fortified foods: milk, orange juice, cereals Animal livers, eggs, butter, dairy products
Vitamin D Indications Dietary supplement Treatment of vitamin D deficiency Treatment and correction of conditions related to long-term deficiency: rickets, tetany, osteomalacia Prevention of osteoporosis
Vitamin K Fat soluble Dietary sources of K1 Green leafy vegetables (broccoli, cabbage, spinach, kale), cheese, soybean oils
Vitamin K Indications Dietary supplementation Treatment of deficiency states (rare) Antibiotic therapy Malabsorption Given prophylactically to newborn infants Reverses the effects of certain anticoagulants (warfarin)
Vitamin K Indications To prevent the bleeding disorders infants may have; given to adults taking Coumadin to reverse effects; Protamine sulfate to reverse effects of Heparin
Forms of Vitamin K Vitamin K1 (phytonadione, AquaMEPHYTON)
Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid) Required for several metabolic activities Collagen synthesis Maintenance of connective tissue Tissue repair Maintenance of bone, teeth, and capillaries Folic acid metabolism Erythropoiesis
Calcium Most abundant mineral in the body
Calcium Food Sources Found in many foods Especially milk and dairy products Fortified cereals Calcium-fortified orange juice Sardines, salmon
Calcium: Causes of Deficiency Inadequate intake of calcium or vitamin D Hypoparathyroidism Malabsorption syndrome Many other causes
Calcium Toxicity Hypercalcemia may occur with therapy – tetany Anorexia Nausea Vomiting Constipation Severe hypercalcemia can cause: Cardiac irregularities Delirium Coma
Magnesium Dietary sources Green leafy vegetables Meats, seafood, milk, cheese, yogurt Bran cereal, nuts
Magnesium: Causes of Deficiency Hypomagnesemia Malabsorption Alcoholism Long-term IV feedings Diuretics Metabolic disorders (hyperthyroidism, diabetic ketoacidosis)
Magnesium: Indications Nutritional supplement Treatment of magnesium deficiency Anticonvulsant in magnesium deficiency Preeclampsia and eclampsia Tocolytic drug for inhibition of uterine contractions in premature labor Cardiac dysrhythmias
Phosphorus Widely distributed in foods Milk Yogurt Cheese Peas Meat Fish Eggs Hyperphosphatemia in renal disease; Carafate will bind to the excess phosphorus to decrease serum phosphorus
Implementation Giving intravenous calcium too rapidly may precipitate cardiac irregularities or cardiac arrest; therefore it must be administered slowly, as ordered, and within the manufacturer guidelines (e.g., usually less than 1 mL/min).
Should extravasation of the intravenous calcium solution occur, the nurse should discontinue the infusion immediately but leave the intravenous catheter in place. The prescriber may then order an injection of 1% procaine and/or other antidotes or fluids to reduce vasospasm at the site and dilute the irritating effects of calcium on surrounding tissue.
Created by: codzep