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Misc. Microbiology

Microbiology final review questions

Q-Fever animal host? Rats and Mice
Death rate of mothers in delivery room decreased due to? Semmelweis convinced Doctors to treat hands antiseptically
Koch postulates established? Specific micro-organism may be the cause of a disease under study.
Microbiology the sudy of: Prions, viruses, bacteria, fungi and parasites
Smallest size visible using a light Microscope 0.2 microns
Electron Microscope allows to see viruses that are? 0.03-0.3 microns
Electron Microscope resolves to smallest possible micron: TEM
Macromolecules take the form of: proteins, polysaccharides, nucleic acids and lipids
polymeric molecules have: many copies of a few chemical subunits
Cell wall of bacterium made up of a substance called peptodoglycan which: Multi-layer cross-linked structure of carbohydrates held together by peptide linkages
Bacterium with a corkscrew coming out of it called: flagellum
Function of fimbriae is to: attach to host cells
Gram+ and Gram- differ in term of: Number of cell envelope layers
Function of the Golgi apparatus: Package materials
Function of Endoplasmic Reticulum Fold and transport proteins
When does a cell rely on endocytosis: Encounter a large molecule it can use as energy source.
Phagocyotic cells secrete enzymes that begin to breakdown materials? False
Soon as pseudopodium of phagocytic cell surrounds target it begins to digest the target? Truce
Lysosomes are: digestive organelles filled with biochemicals and enzymes? Truce
Flagessa and Cilia used for motility both made of what macromolecule? Carbohydrate
Symbiotic fungi obtain nutrients from where? Other organisms and do not cause organism harm
Heterotrophic organisms are those that? Use organic carbon from other organisms
Fuzzy mass of hyphae is called: Mycelium
How do yeast differ from molds? Yeast single cell, molds multi cellular
Hyaphe associated with what types of fungus? Molds
Cell walls of most fungi made of_____ which can be classified as_____ chitin, polysaccharide
Prostista Kingdom includes: Algae, protozoa and Slime Molds
Algae cell walls are made of: Cellulose
Flagellated protozoa are immobile: False
Difference between slime molds and water molds? Water molds have flagellated reproductive cells.
Lice can transmit? Trench fever, epidemic typhus and relapsing fever.
Yerisinia pestis causes: Plague
Dermacentor andersoni transmits? Rickettsia rickettsii which causes Rocky Mtn Spotted fever.
Viruses lack: Cellular organelles
Viruses contain: Nucleic acid wrapped in protein coat.
Viral infection cycle starts and end? Attachment and release.
Naked virus release from a cell by: Cell lysis
Lytic virus called a: lysogen
After carbon most element in microbes: Oxygen
Bacteria that does not need additional supplements? Autotroph
Bacteria found in Great Salt Lake area: Halophiles
Diffusion driven by process: Browian motion
Microbes responsible for most human disease: Mesophiles
Grows in high salt concentration: Staphylococcus and Streptococcus
Test for diptheria: Schick test
Prokaryote gene expression seen at what level? Transcription
When repressor protein binds to operator site within inducible system? Transcription ceases, RNA polymease unable to bind to Promoter site.
Genes normally turned on but can be turned off when advantageous to the cell called: Repressible
When levels of tryptophan are high: The aopressor produced by the trp operon will be activated.
When molecule of trypotophan binds with corresponding aopressor protein the resultin molecule is classified as an: active repressor complex
A protein not encoded by the lac operon system: lac O
The lac operon si a ______ system involved in the _______ of lactose inducible and catabolism of lactose
Specific biochemical pathway in a fungal cell, when end product of pathway present in ample amounts cells expression of this pathway repressed. This is known as: Feedback inhibition
Mutation most harmful to a cell: Missense mutation
Mutation that converts coding triplet to a stop codon: Nonsense mutation
Mutation deletion of 2 nucleotides: frame shit deletion
Auxotroph: mutation that changes itsd phenotpye
Mutation that causes lac operon to funtion incorrectly: Regulatory mutation
Ames test used: Determine chemical causes mutation
Gram- bacteria can transmit genes to Gram+ bacteria and vice-versa? True
Standard bacterial conjugation: complete DNA sequence of donor cell transfered to recepient cell
When bacterial gen transfer via transduction: Donor cell has a pilus
Fredrick Griffith famous experiment demonstrated which form of bacterial gene transfer? Transformation
What is meant when a bacterium is competent: Has special transport proteins in cell membrane allow entry of DNA molecules
A non-specific disenfecting agent: biocide
Hand washing removes what organisms: transient
Helicobacter pylori can tolderate what environment: Acidic
Penicillin works by: Inhibiting growth of cell wall
Test to check concentration of ABT that will impede bacteria growth: Therapeutic index
Microbes release endotoxins when: damaged or lysed
classified as a sequeale: heart damage R/T strep throat
When iron binding protein help protect body against infection? Sequester iron so microbes can't use for nutrition
classical pathway compliment system binds to C1 to bacterial bound antibodies then: c4, c2, c3, c5
Deficient C3 experience affect complement system: Classican or alternate pathway cannot function properly
PMN's live 1-5 days? True
When histamines not release in adequate amounts what not functioning correctly? Basophils
Lymphocytes most fundamental of acquired immunity due to: Ability to recognize antigens familiar to the body
Antibody allergic reaction IgE
S.pyogens lack: Outer membrane
Patient with s/s of rheumatic fever need to inquire if pt. recently suffered from: Strep throat
Pt. difficulty breathing lab culture shows up Gram+ cocci sensitive to optochin most likely suffering from: Streptocci pneumonia
Most pathogenic fungi, 25% of deaths due to: Cryptococcus
Lab finding fungal infection r/t Cryptococcus in a patient: Encapsulated yeast produce urease in blood or CSF
Fungus exhibits thermal dimorphism means: Exist in 2 morph forms each at different emp ranges
pt. admitted to hospital suspected fungal pneumonia. found fungal balls in lungs and fungal infection in ears, most likely infected with: Aspergillus fumigatus
Pulmonary system diseases most associated with: Phycomycetes species
Pneumocystis carini was classified as a progozoan not classified as a Fungus
Typhoid fever systoms bloody diarrhe3a, kidney failure and coma
Diarrhea: Infantile, travelers, cystitis and bacterium: Escherichia coli
Food poisioning common cause: Enterotoxins secreted by Staphylococcus
HepB virus differes from othe hepatitis: DNA virus others are a RNA virus
Coxsackie virus causes gastroenteritis and Aseptic meningitis
Echovirus do not contain: DNA
Echovirus can cause: Gastroenteritis and Resp. infections
Blantidiasis diseases are due to: Ciliates
Helminths include: Flatworm and roundworms
Trichinosis cysts attach to intestines and: diaphram and brain
s/s of male gonorrhea Inflammation of urethra, dysuria and inflammatory response
Silver nitrate drops in Newborns eyes: Protect against Neisserial conjunctivitis
s/s 1st stage of syphyllis: painless ulcer in genital area
General paresis caused by long term infection of: Treponema pallidum
Most often diagnoses STD in the U.S. chlamydia
Treatment for Trachoma Tetracycline
Protozoans causes trichomoniasis: Trichomonas vaginalis
Identify protozoan that causes triachmoniasis: Undulating membrane
Helpful in the orevention of spread of anthrax vaccinate and treat cattle
E faecalis commonly ent the body through: penetration of intestional tract
c. perfringens cause: Gas gangrene
Skin diesase caused by fungi: Mycoses
HIgh risk of ______ if sharing hair brush: infection by dermatophytes
Candida in the lab look for: See if it ferments carbohydrates
Rose thron disease: Sporotrichosis
Yersinia pestis transmitte4d to humans: Flease
Epidemic typhus passed person to person by: Deer flies
Lyme disease: Borrelia burgdorteri
Typhus fever transmitted by lice Rickettsia prowazekii
Q fever transmitted by insects or fluids C. burnetii
arboviruses spread by: Mosquito bites
Epstein Barr virus effect on infected individual B lymphocytes Causes cytoplasm to grown in the B lymphocytes
Malaria sporozites become merozoites in the: liver
Merozites invade destruction by immune system by: Change gene expression
Testes flies transmit Trypanosoma brucei
s/s of trypanosoma brucei change in sleep, fever, lalase, wasting
Triatomid bugs take blood meal from: face and lips
Spread to humans by domestic cats: Toxoplasmosis
Retrovirus defined by: Presence of reverse transcriptase
gp160 do after attaches to T cells? penetrates cell, uncoats self and releases viral RNA
Can be added to ceral quickly and inexpensively for vitamins: riboflavin and cyanocobalamine
Shallow part of ocean littoral zone
Deepest part of ocean with stange animal life called: abysal zone
Microbes in soil function as: recycling center for organic material in the soil
necessary to convert gaseous nitrogen into nitrates through nitrogen fixation? Plants and animals use nitrates without nitrogen fixastion all nitrogen would be in unusable gaseous form
Proteins and amino acids that make up nitrogen are broken down into neuclotides process known as: ammonification
Germ theory of disease Koch
Bacterial motility by: flagellum
Bacteria that grows in absence of oxygen obligate anarobe
What gives bacterial cell wall its ridgidity peptodoglycan
Feeding form of Giardia lambia: Tropozite
Bacterial process of recombination of uptake of free DNA Transformation
Causes food illnesses Staphylococcus aureus
Causes GAS gangrene Clostridium perfringes
first to utilize aseptic technique in hospital Lister
Organism grows at 37 C Mesophile
Can fix nitrogen: Cyanobacter
Does NOT occur in infection cycle of viruses Transformation
When bacterophage becomes lysogenic it: integrates its DNA does not immediately replicate
Cellulose degraded by: Cytophaga
Virus that is latent in nerves of the head: Herpes SimplexI
During transcription: DNA template used to form molecule of mRMA
Eukaryote transcription look at: the nucleus
Why are operons valuable to bacterial cells: Operons ensure cells products produced at same time in correct amounts
Prokaryotes translation begins when: 30sbinds near molecule of mRNA
To alter rate of mRNA produced during experiment you need to: add RNA polymerase
Two major components of ribosomes rRNA and protein
Fredrick Griffith responsible for: discovering "transforming principle"
Oswald Avery determin that DNA served as genetic substance within cells: transformation did not occur when cells treated wtih DNase
DNA proofreading: DNA polymease checks to see if nucleotides correct if not, removes and tries again.
Prokaryotes gene expression seen at level: Transcription
Lac operon is a _____ system involved in _____ of lactose inducible catabolism
Mutation harmful to a cell: Missence mutation
Converts coding triplet into a stop codon Nonsence mutation
deletes 2 nucleotides frame shift mutation
cell carries mutation chnges its phenotype auxotroph
Gram+ bacteria may produce: exotoxins
Gram- bacteria may produce: endotoxins,
Eukaryotes include: fungus, algae and protozoa
Select media for AFB culture: Lowenstein- Jensen or Middlebrook
Select media for anarobi culture: PRAS and LKV
Gram- bacterial assoc with endocarditis HACEK
how to classify mycobacteria by growth rate: Runyon
AFB also know as fisherman wound M. marium
Select media for s. pneumoniae Pkisk or Optochin
Bacteria from uncooked poultry c. jejuni
Select media for c. diptheria (throat swab) Elek testing
Organism from wounds while salt water fishing Vibrio
Select media for Cryptococcus: india ink prep
Special media for cultivation of B. anthracis is: PLET
vector lice, Rickettesia prowazekii Gram- coccobacilli Typhus fever
vector mice, rats and fleas, yersinia pestis Plague
vector insects, Gram- coccobacilli C. burnetii Q. Fever
vector tick da, rickettsia ricketsii Rocky mtn. spotted fever
vector tick bite burrelia burgdorteri Lyme Disease
Describe tRNA tRNA 2 binding sites: amino acid and specific codon
Bacteria in Salt Lake Region: Halophiles
Most microbes responsisble for human disease: mesophiles
Uses light as energy source: Phototrophic
Grows supplies with water and oxygen. no need for additional supplements: autotroph
When does bacteria come to end of log phase: when nutrients available are limited
Catabolic reaction: treat with protease protein disassociates into amino acids
DNA template used to form mRNA transcription
to view transcription in eukaryotic cell focus on: nucleus
Prokaryotes translation begins when: 30s binds near mRNA
translation concludes: ribosome reaches stop codon on mRNA
Prokaryotes gene expression seen at level: transcription
Mutation potentially harmful to a cell: Missense Mutation
Bacterial transduction possible: up-take of free DNA by recipient cell
Prokaryotic cells are: haploid cells
Eukaryotes cells are: diploid cells
gene: DNA coding for single protein
Genome: collection of all genes in a cell
DNA synthesis begins: at origin of replication
DNA proofreading: by DNA polymerse
Conjungation: transfer sex pilus form bridge between two bacteria
Treansformation: gene transfer transports naked DNA through cell membran
Transduction: mediated by a bacteriophage
Bactericides kill bacteria
fungicides: kill fungi
virocides: kills viruses
biocides: non specific
bacteriostatic do not kill they inhibit
bactericidal kill bacteria
Why Prokaryote less ridgid than EukaryotesL lack sterols
Tetracycline 70s ribosomes
Tes used to determine the MIC Kirby-Bauer test
Prokaryotes have cell walls
Gram+ cell walls many layers of peptidoglycan
Gram- cell walls do not contain teichoic acids
Mycoplasm smallest bacterium outside living host
Archea always lack peptidoglycan
hypotonic water moves into cell
hypertonic water moves out of cell
Most bacteria live in: hypertonic solution
can be killed by ABT prokaryote cells
Eukaryotes: algae, protozoa, fungi, plants and animals
Cytsol fluid portion of cytoplasm
cisterns flattened membrane sacs of Endoplasmic Reticulum
ER Synthesizes phospholipids fats and sterols
Golgi comples: function to package susbtances in vesicles for transport
Mitochondia organelles that can rproduce mor or less on their own
Bacteria transformation Genes transfered from one gene to another as "naked" DNA
competence: alterations in cell wall make it permable to large DNA molecules
conjungation requires cell to cell contact
F factor Fertility factor plasmid in donor cell in conjugation
Transduction via DNA bacteriophage from donor to recipients via a virus that infect the bacteriophage
Transcription requires: RNA polymerase
Affects the skin rare can cause pneumonia and bone infections Staphyloccal aureus
Staphyloccal auresus ______ helps evade the immune system Protein A, prevents development of acquired immunity
Anthrax Bacillus anthraces
Leprosy Mycobacterium leprae
Gas gangrene c. perfringens
Persorated intestine Enterococcus faecalis
Smallpox s/s flat red spots turn into blisters and pustules lesions painful and leave scars
Warts papilloma virus
herpes virus envelped DNA virus replicate in the nucleus
HSV - 1 causes oral lesions recurrent cold sores, latent in neuron
HSV -2 affects the genitals
Herpes 6 Roseola rash, CNS seizures, parents transmit to children
Herpes 7 70% of children by age 8. affects t cells
herpes 8 Karposi sarcoma brown lesions on skin
Sporotrichosis Rose thron disease
Helminths include: flatworms and roundworms
helminth under microscope as male and female reproductive organs: flatworm
long slender moves by whipping themselves back and forth: roundworm trichuris trichiura
Epstein-Barr virus on B lympocytes growth of cytoplasm of B lympocytes
Lice transmit: Trench fever, epidemic typhus and relapsing fever
Lease Yersinia pestis transmit: Plague
Codons are: triplet or three ribonucleotides n a row
Bacteria that lost ability to grow on specific sugars: auxotrophs
carbon from organic compound heterotroph
Diatoms decontaminate water supplies
When bacteria becomes losogenic it: integrate
Protista kingdom Algae, protozoa and slime molds
Microorganism that multiplies by budding: Candida albicans
Staphylococci and be differeniated from Streptococci by: Catalase test
Gram stain of sputum showed many gram positive diplocci. organism most likely: Diploccus pneumoniae
Organism that causes syphilis: Treponema pallidum
Rocky mountain spotted fever caused by: rickettsia
tine tes is for: tuberculosis
equivalent of 0.04g is: 40mg
indicates fecal contamination: Escherichis coli
synonym vor vaccinia: cowpox
acid fast stain is generally associated with the diagnosis of: tuberculosis
in acid fast stain the bacteria are stained: red
Neisseria gonorrhea described morphologically as: diplococcus
cholera is an example of ____ disease intestinal
disease usually caused by wound infection tetanus
disease ususaly transmitted from animanl to man is: rabies
Staphylococcus aureus causes: food associated illneses
Clostridium perfringens causes: Gas gangrene
Organism grows well at 37 c mesophile
can fix nitrogen: cyanobacter
does NOT occur in infection cycle of all viruses: transformation
B-lactamases makes bacteria resistant to PCN by: enzymatically degrading the drug
Long lived cell: macrophage
Severe congenital disease caused by: rubella
Red rash head and trunk moves out to extremities last aprox 7 days. Measles
Cellulose degraded by: cytophaga
ER fold snd transport: synthesizes phosopholipids, fats and sterols
Cryptococcus select media: India ink prep
b. antracis select media: PLET
anarobic culture select media: PRAS and LKV
Flurogvinolone inhibits: DNA synthesis
Viroid: naked infectious piece of RNA
Helminth Multicellular organism, has a mouth lives in animal host
Bacteria on the outside of a protozoan do what: propel it
Trachoma greatest cause of blindness
HAECK Granm- bacteria assoc with endocarditis
Prokaryotic cells are: haploid
Antibodies can fix complement: IgM and IgG
Transcription: DNA copied to RNA
used to identify bacteria carrying specific gene: Southern blot test
Patient with an inherited type of colon cancer..mutation gene codes for: apoptosis
Mycoplasma produces small "fried-egg" colonies on medium containing horse serum
Primary infection called: Initial infection
Halophiles Spoil freshwater trout preserved with salt
3rd step in Direct ELISA test: Antihuman immune serum
Characteristics for pseudomonas are: GNB non-fermenter, and osidase positive
Transport medium for most intestinal bacterial pathogens: Cary-Blair
s. pneumoniae P.disk or optochin has large zone: GPC is:
"chinese letters" Elek testing for toxigenicity
On basis of optimum growth temperatures, pathogenic bacteria are generally classified: mesophiles
Bacteria that do not have flagella are called: atrichous
Spherical organisms appearing in grapelike clusters are characteristic of the: staphylococci
Generally considered to be caused by aerobic, spore-forming bacilli is: anthrax
The fertile hen's egg is generally used as a medium for the cultivation of: viruses
The brewer method is used in culturing: anaerobes
Most pathogenic bacteria generally grow best in media that are slightly alkaline
dark field method widely used in examionation of: spirochetes
Dick test used for: scarlet fever
oxidase test generally used in identification of: gonococci
Ziehl-Neelsen method used in staining bacteria for: acid-fastness
microtome used in laboratory to: section tissues
Wasserman test used in diagnosis of syphilis is a: complement fixation reaction
In gram stain acetone alcohol mixture used as a: decolorizing agent
using low power objective instead of other in compound microscope: larger field obtained
average size of a single staphylococcus is: 1 micron
Amebiasis caused by: protozoa
athletes foot caused by: fungus
Brucellosis rickettsia
Bubonic plague rickettsia
Dengue virus
Diptheria rickettsia
Malaria protozoq
measles virus
Q fever bacterium
Smallpox virus
Typhus fever bacterium
Yellow fever virus
BCG vaccine used to produce immunity against: tuberculosis
immunity in individuals who have recovered from measles: naturally acquired active
important characteristic of exotoxins is their: specific toxic effect
Breed method generally used in: milk bacteriology
Kauffman-White scheme used in classification of: salmonella
Schick test used to determine susceptibility to: diptheria
negative result in the complement fixation test is indicated when ther is_______ hemolysis: complete
Treponema described as: spiral forms
Neisseria gonorrheae described as: diplococcus
organism having a single flagellum at one pole is: monotrichous
cholera is an example of ______ disease intestinal
penicillin obtained from: fungi
chloromycetin obtained from: actinomycetes
Vibrio comma described as: curved rod
Most pathogenic bacteria are: facultative anaerobes
Multiplication of bacteria is usually by: binary fission
Most microorganisms grow best at a ph of: 7.5
acid fast stain generally assoc with diagnosis of: tuberculosis
gram positive bacteria are stained: violet
acid fast staining, acid fast bacteria are stained: red
Most pathogenic bacteria are: facultative anaerobes
a micron is equal to: 1/25,000 of an inch
Circle shape bacteria are known as: cocci
CHIEF use of the darkfield microscope is diagnosis of: syphilis
Acid fast bacilli are difficult to stain because of: wax like covering
term mycotic most nearly means: fungal
Methylene blue commonly used of smears for: diptheria bacilli
Created by: BJHughes707