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Test 2

This government organization has strict rules about "claims. Manufacture must provide specific nutrition info relevant to claim. ~ FDA
What does "enriched" mean? ~ Nutrients were there at first, but were lost after processing.
What does "fortified" mean? ~ Nutrients added to food that were never there to begin with.
What is the purpose of the food guide pyramid? ~ Guide individuals w. daily eating habits and present a better visual of proportions.
What design was used before the food pyramid and why was it changed? ~ the "basic 4" (box shaped). Too high in Fats and Proteins
What year was the newest food pyramid created and what is it's focus? ~ 2005, points out nutrient dense foods (measure of nut/cal of food)
What are the food groups in the pyramid? ~ Grains, Veg, Frui, Milk, Meat&Beans, and Grains.
From smallest to largest, what is the parts of matter? ~ Atom, Molecule, Organelle, Cell, Tissue, Organ, and Organ System.
What are basic building blocks of all matter called? ~ Atoms
2 or more atome combined is called: ~ molecules
What is bigger than an atom and performs cellular functions within a cell? ~ an organelle
What is the smallest unit capable of life? ~ a cell
What are similar cells together that perform a function called? ~ Tissue
Name 4 types of tissues and what they do? ~ Epithelial (lines the body and organs), Connective (connects and supports), Muscle (contracts), and Nervous (communication by electrical impulses)
What is an integrated collection of 2 or more tissues called? ~ Organs
Organs that work together to perform a mafor body function is called? ~ Organ Systems
What 2 things regulate the Digestive Sytem? ~ hormones and nervous systm
Name some examples of mechanical digestion? ~ Chewing food, churning of stomach, and segmentation
What is the purpose of chemical digestion? ~ to break down nutrients into building blocks
The movement of nutrients to bloodstream is called: ~ Absorption
Approx. how long is the digestive tube (from mouth to anus)? ~ 30 feet long
How long does it usually take to transmit food from mouth to anus? ~ 24-72 hours
What are 4 things that can alter the time it takes to digest food? ~ Diet, Activity, Emotions, and Medications
What are 2 functions that saliva have? ~ lubercates food, and Amylase breaks down carbs
By teeth chewing food, how is it helping chemical digestion? ~ By allowing more surface area for enzymes to work on.
The purpose of the tounge is: ~ to taste and manipulat food into bolus
How does the bolus move through the esophagus? ~ by peristalsis (a rhythmic muscle contraction)
The main purpose of the stomach is: ~ to store food
What 2 things easily absorbs through the stomach? ~ water and alcohol
What is the name of the controllers of the entrance and exit of the stomach? ~ entrance=gastroesophageal sphincter and exit=pyloric sphincter
Secretions in the stomach (like hydrochloric acid) does what: ~ mechanically digests by unravleling protein and kills bacteria in stomach
What enzyme is present in the stomach? ~ pepsin (for protein digestion)
What is chyme composed of and where is it made? ~ food and acid/ in the stomach
What function does Rugae provide? ~ Allows the stomach to expand
What 2 things mechanically break down food in the stomach? ~ stomach muscles churning food and stomach acid unraveling proteins.
What 4 important things protect the stomach from it's acid? ~ mucas (by protecting the stomach lining), cells are shed and replaced, tight junctions between cells, secrete inactive enzymes that neutralize acid
Where is the primary site of all digestion and absorption of all nutrients? ~ in the small intestine
The small intestine has an inner lining composed of ?? that provides ?? ~ Villi & microvilli / more surface area to facilitate digestion
Nutrients are absorbed through the inner lining of SI and then absorbe where? ~ to the blood, then carried to liver
The main place that secretions to SI provide enzymes for chemical digestion comes from: ~ the pancreas
Name 4 enzymes that work in SI and what they break down into? ~ bicarbonate (neutralize chyme), Amylase (carbs to simple sugars), Lipase (fats to fatty acids), peptidase/ trysin/ chymotrypsin/ carboxypeptidase (proteins to ammino acids)
Where is bile made and stored? ~ made in liver, stored in gallbladder
Bile helps breakdown ? for what reason? ~ Fat in SI, to provide more surface area for lipase to attack
The main function of the Large Instestine is: ~ to reabsorb water and electrolytes
Feces is stored, formed and transported in: ~ the large intestine
What is still helping digest in Large int. ? ~ Cellulose
What 2 vitimins are found in large intestine? ~ Bs, and K
How is digestive system sensitive to malnutrition? ~ Si shrinks, w/o fiber (which retains h20) si has insufficient bulk for muscles to push against.
Storage from glucose called ? is stored in ? and ? ~ glycogen, liver and muscle cells
What organ processes some of the waste that cells generate? ~ liver (sends to digestive tract)
What organ filter blood creating urine? ~ kidneys
Backflow of stomach acid into the esophagus is called: ~ heartburn
How can you help avoid heartburn? ~ small meals, avoid spices, lose weight, don't lay down after eating
What is the difference between antacids (tums) and acid blockers (pepcid ac)? ~ antacids neutralize acids in stomach / Acid blockers stop acid production
Where are three common areas for ulcers? ~ esophagus, stomach, upper SI
What are 3 things that can cause an ulcer? ~ bacteria, anti-imflamatory drugs, excess acid production
A protrusion of organ or organ part through a wall or chamber is called a ? ~ Hernia
What are some things that can cause a hernia? ~ coughing or sneezing, diarrhea or constipation, obesity, lifting
What are things to help with constipation? ~ inc. fat & fiber, drink h20, prunes, squat
Carbohydrates are made up of : ~ carbon and h2o
The first link in food chain that supports all life on earth is : ~ carbohydrates
Carbs come from ? except ? ~ plants, milk
The main point of carbs for us is to : ~ provide energy
Glucose is made by plants by : ~ photosynthesis
What is known as blood sugar or dextrose? ~ Glucose
Which monosacharide is the most abundant in the body? ~ Glucose
Name 3 monosacharides and an example ~ Glucose (dextrose), Fructose (honey), Galactose (part of milk sugar)
Name 3 disacharides and what sugars make them up? ~ Sucrose (glucose + fuctose), Maltose (glucose + glucose), and Lactose (glucose + galactose)
What kind of sugar is uses as table sugar? ~ Sucrose
What are hundreds of glucoses linked called? ~ Starch
What uses starch for storage of carbs? ~ plants
Complex carbs are also known as: ~ polysaccharides
Long chains of glucose linked together that have more branches than starch are: ~ Glycogen
The storage form of carbs in animals is called: ~ Glycogen
A part of fiber that can not be digested by humans is: ~ Cellose
Name 3 complex carbs/ or polysaccharides ~ Starch, Glycogen, and Fiber
What may lower cholesterol by delaying cholesterol absorption and binding bile ~ Fiber
Refing wheat into flour involves removing ?, ?, and ? ~ Chaff, bran, and Germ
How much of the wheat is used to make whole grain? ~ all, but the husk
What part of wheat is used to make white bread? ~ endosperm
What type of carb is preferred by body and chief fuel for brain? ~ Glucose
If body is low in carbs, ? and ? are used for fuel ~ fats & proteins
Are complex carbs fattening? why? ~ No, it is easier to convert food fat to fat and it takes energy to convert glucose to fat
Which type of sugars displace nutrient dense foods, pure or refined? ~ pure sugar
What type of sugar is termed empty calories, refined or pure sugar? ~ refined sugar
Enzymes convert polysaccharides to : ~ monosaccarides
What transports glucose to the liver for processing? ~ blood
What organ releases insulin and what does insulin do for us? ~ pancrease, brings blood sugar down (glucose)
If glycogen stores are full in the liver and body's needs are met, glucose is then stored as: ~ Fat
If blood sugar is low ? releases ? to the blood to increase glucose levels and the liver break down ? ~ Pancrease / Glucagon Glucogen to glucose
20% of all diabetes is type ? which is when your body provides inadequate insulin ~ type 1
In type ? diabetes insulin production is fine, but : ~ type 2 , problem with insulin recepters
The influence of carbs on raising blood glucose and insulin levels is called the ? effect. ~ Glycemic effect
In glycomic effect, which one changes blood level back to normal: Low effect or High effect? ~ Low effect, because high effect is a fast absorption and an over-reaction of insulin.
What 3 things can slow digestion and absorbtion in regards to the glycemic effect? ~ fiber, protein, and fats
Is Hypoglycemia a rare or common medical condition? ~ rare
A medical condition in which blood glucose levels falls too low? ~ Hypoglycemia
Consuming sugar is only bad when it displaces : ~ Nutrient dense food
What are the 5 functions of Lipids (Fats)? ~ Longterm storage, protection, insulation, cell structure (membrane), and raw material from bile and hormone production.
What are 3 classes of lipids ~ Triglycerides (storage form of fat), Phospholipids (cell membrane), sterols (cholesterol, hormones)
What type of lipid is 95% of all lipids consumed in our diet? ~ triglycerides
Most fat in animals is what type: saturation/unsat fat ~ Saturated Fats
A fat full of hydrogen that does not have one or more double bonds? ~ Saturated
Regarding saturated fats, we should reduce ? and increase ? ~ Saturated fats / unsaturated fats
We can synthesize all fatty acids from carbs, fat and protein except: ~ Linoleic acid & Linolenic acid
Unsaturated fatty acids are classified as: ~ Omega 6 , Omega 3
? found in fish oil are linked to reductions in cardiovascular problems, asthma, arthritis, and cancer. ~ Omega 3
Trans fatty acids (transfat) is formed from: ~ Hydrogenation process to unsaturnate fats
Examples of saturnated fats that have been turned unsaturnated are: ~ Margarines, shortenings, some peanut butters
Cholesterol is found only in food from ? sources ~ animal`
Cholesterol is necessary for our body, but not ? ~ essential
What is the name of the molecule that transports lipids? ~ Lipoproteins
LDL (low-density lipoproteins) are good or bad and should be what #? ~ BAD, < 130
Hdl (high density lipoproteins) are good or bad and should be what #? ~ Good, > 35
Does LDL or HDL carry cholesterol back to liver for removal? ~ HDL
Can most cells break down cholesterol? ~ No
Created by: Patrick24g