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Biochem 2 exam 1

biochem

QuestionAnswer
What is the intermediate that can be channeled into 4 different pathways in the carbohydrate metabolism Glucose,6-phostphate
what happens under anaerobic conditions if the cell is in need of energy fermentation of pyruvate to lactate to recylce NADH for glycolysis
What are the regulated enzymes in glycolysis hexokinase, phosphofructokinase-1, pyruvate kinase
What are the regulated enzymes in gluconeogenesis pyruvate carboxylase, fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase, glucose 6-phosphatase
What are the regulated enzymes in glycogen metabolism glycogen synthase, glycogen phosphorylase
What are the regulated enzymes in the PPP (pentose phosphate pathway) glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase
what is the main purpose of glucose energy for cns
what is the main purpose of glycogen short term energy storage
what is the main purpose of ribose 5-phosphate nucleotide precursors, antioxidants, biosynthesis
what is the main purpose of lactate and pyruvate energy
in general, what are the types of regulatory mechanisms allosteric regulation, hormone action, isoenzymes, occurance restricted to certain tissues or organelles
list specific regulation for hexokinase hexokinase IV has higher Km and is inhibited by fructose 6-phosphate (formed under gluconeogenic conditions),hexokinase I-III inhibited by glucose 6-phostphate
list specific regulation for phosphofructokinase-1 -allosterically activated by AMP,ADP, and fructose 2,6-bisphosphate. break down is stimulated by glucagon. -indirectly activated by insulin and inhibited by glucagon -allosterically inhibited by ATP and citrate
list specific regulation for pyruvate kinase -allosterically inhibited by ATP, acetyl-CoA, long chain fatty acid -allosterically activated by fructose 1,6-bisphosphate -in liver, inhibited by glucagon
list specific regulation for pyruvate carboxylase allosterically activated by acetyl-CoA
list specific regulation for fructose 1,6-bisphosphate -inhibited by fructose 2,6-bisphosphate -formation stimulated by insulin -indirectly inhibited by insulin and activated by glucagon
list specific regulation for glucose 6-phosphate -expressed in liver and renal cortex -located in endoplasmatic reticulum
list specific regulation for glycogen phosphorylase -activated by glucagon(liver, epinephrine(skel muscle), Ca2+, AMP -inhibited by insulin, glucose, ATP
list specific regulation for glycogen synthase -actication by insulin, glucose, glucose 6-phosphate -inhibited by epinephrine, glucagon
list specific regulation for glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase allosterically stimulated by NADP
what is the general function of insulin lower blood glucose if level is greater than 4-5mM
what is the general function of glucagon increase blood glucose if level is less than 4-5mM
what is the general function of epinephrine fight or flight hormone, activate energy storage for increased ATP requirement in skel. muscle
which enzyme activities of the carbohydrate metabolism is affected by insulin -glycogen phosphorylase inhibited -glycogen sunthase stimulated -phosphofructokinase-1 stimulated -fructose 1,6-bisphosphate inhibited
which enzyme activities of the carbohydrate metabolism is affected by glucagon -phosphofructokinase-1 inhibited -fructose 1,6 bisphosphate stimulated -pyruvate kinase inhibited -glycogen phosphorylase stimulated -glycogen synthase inhibited
which enzyme activities of the carbohydrate metabolism is affected by epinephrine -glycogen phosphorylase stimulated -glycogen synthase inhibited
Name the minerals and vitamins important for carbohydrate metabolism Mg2+, Biotin, thiamine, Niacin
importance of Mg2+ needed for enzymes of glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, and oxidative phase of PPP
importance of biotin pyruvate carboxylase
importance of thiamine transketolase
importance of Niacin part of coenzymes NAD and NADP -dehydrogenases
what are the signs and dangers of the blood glucose level being too low -signs of hunger, subtle neurological signs, trembling, sweating -if lower: lethargy, convulsions, coma -very low: permanent brain damage, death
where in the cell do the reactions of A) glycolysis and B)gluconeogenesis A)all reactions in cytoplasm B)fist step in mitochondria(pyruvate carboxylase) rest in cytoplasm
describe what happens in glycolysis glucose is converted to (2) pyruvate under production of 2 ATP and 2 NADH
describe what happens in gluconeogenesis glucose is formed from two pyruvate requiring the energy of 6 ATP and reduction provided by 2 NADH
what happens in the preparatory phase of glycolysis 2 ATP are invested to phosphorylate glucose which is then converted to 2 glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate
what happens in the pay-off phase of glycolysis glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate is converted to pyruvate and oxidized yeilding NADH. 2 ATP are formed
which reactions are irreversible in glycolysis and what are the enzymes catalyzing -glucose -> glucose 6-P (hexokinase,glucokinase) -fructose 6-P ->fructose 1,6-bisphosphate (phosphofroctokinase-1) -phosphoenolpyruvate(PEP)->pyruvate (pyruvate kinase)
which reactions are irreversible in gluconeogenesis and what are the enzymes catalyzing -pyruvate->oxaloacetate(pyruvate carboxylase) -oxaloacetate->PEP (PEP carboxylase) -fructose 1,6-bisphosphate -> fructose 6-P (fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase) -glucose 6-P ->glucose (glucose 6-phosphatase)
what is the minimum amount of carbons needed as a precursor for gluconeogenesis 3
which enzymes of glycolysis are regulated hexokinase, phosphofructokinase-1,pyruvate kinase
which enzymes of gluconeogenesis are regulated pyruvate carboxylase, fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase, glucose 6-phosphatase
define glucagon hormone that has the function to increase blood glucose concentration
define gluconeogenesis anabolic pathway that leads to the production of glucose from precursors
define glycogen carbohydrate polymer consisting of glucose building blocks (branched homo)
define glycolysis catabolic pathway in which glucose is broken to pyruvate under formation of ATP and NADH
define glycogenolysis catabolic pathway that least to defradation of glycogen to glucose 1-phosphate
define glycogenesis anabolic pathway leading to the formation of glycogen
define glycogenin protein needed to start the formation of glycogen
Created by: Aaron Esquibel Aaron Esquibel on 2012-06-17



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