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NWCC GA2 MASH1 EMBRY

NWCC GA2 MASH #1 EMBRYO

QuestionAnswer
Give the (3) derivatives from the cartilage of the 2nd branchial arch Stapes, styloid process, stylohyoid ligament
Give hypomere derivatives of the sacrococcygeal myotomes Skeletal mm. of anus and sex organs, muscles of pelvic diaphragm
What is the fate of the preotic myotomes? Extrinsic eye mm.
Nerve of the 3rd pharyngeal arch CN 9 glossopharyngeal
As the eye develops, the short posterior ciliary arteries RUN (i.e., are located in) in the ______ and SUPPLY the ____________ Choroid layer, pigment layer of retina
Name the germ layer (neuroectoderm, surface ectoderm, mesenchyme, or endoderm) responsible for: a) corneal epithelium b) choroid layer a) surface ectoderm b) mesenchyme
List the origin (neuroectoderm, surface ectoderm, mesenchyme, or endoderm) of the following components associated with the eye: a) conjunctival epithelium b) lacrimal gland epithelium c) iridopupillary membrane a) surface ectoderm b) surface ectoderm c) surface ectoderm
List the origin (neuroectoderm, surface ectoderm, mesenchyme, or endoderm) of the following components associated with the eye: d) sphincter and dilator pupillae e) sclera f) lens d) neuroectoderm e) mesenchyme f) surface ectoderm
What SPECIFIC part of the eye forms from the following: a) outer layer of the optic cup (post. 4/5ths) b) inner layer of the optic cup (ant. 1/5ths) a) pigment layer of retina b) inner layer of ciliary body, inner layer of iris
What SPECIFIC components develop from the neural layer of the retina? Primary rods and cones, secondary bipolar cells, tertiary ganglion cells
Name vessels which develop and remain in the adult to supply the pigment layer of the retina. Short post.ciliary a.
WEEK in which the vascular system appears 3rd
Name given to the distal 1/3rd of the bulbus cordis Truncus arteriosus
Name the adult derivatives of the middle 1/3rd of the bulbus cordis Conus arteriosus and aortic vestibule
Embryonic component responsible for forming the myocardium (do NOT list mesenchyme or mesoderm) Myocardial mantle
Partitioning of the common atrium is first indicated by the appearance of ______ _______ Septum primum
Forms the auricles Original embryonic common atrium
Briefly discuss the development of the atrioventricular canals (wording for answer varies – check out) The superior and inferior endocardial cushions grow and fuse across forming the atrioventricular septum which separates the primary atrioventricular canal in the right and left atrioventricular canals
The definitive derivative of the left common cardinal vein Oblique vein of left atrium
Forms the trabeculated part of the left ventricle ONLY Primitive ventricle
Foramen ovale forms within this embryonic structure Septum secundum
Name 2 muscular components that develop from the 2nd branchial arch. (for a muscle group, do NOT list individual mm. of the group- just list the group) mm. of facial expression, post. belly of digastric, stapedius, stylohyoid
Give the derivatives from the cartilage of the 6th branchial arch Cartilages of the larynx
Give the derivatives from the cartilage of the 3rd branchial arch Greater horn and inf. portion of hyoid bone
Concerning the post. 4/5ths of the INNER layer of the optic cup: a) give its specific name b) what vessel in the ADULT remains to supply it? a) neural retina b) central artery of retina
Name the 3 embryonic arterial networks formed by the end of the 3rd week. Vitelline, umbilical, and dorsal aorta
SPECIFICALLY is formed by the ORIGINAL embryonic COMMON atrium Auricles of the R&L atria (also ‘auricles’)
Embryonic component responsible for forming the myocardium (do NOT list mesenchyme or mesoderm) Myoepicardial mantle
Name give to the middle 1/3rd of the bulbus cordis Conus cordis
Embryonic component forms NONtrabeculated part of right ventricle Conus cordis
forms the NONtrabeculated part of the left ventricle Conus cordis
Defects contributing to the Tetralogy of Fallot (circle all that apply): a) pulmonary stenosis, b) atrial septal defect, c) ventricular septal defect, d) hypertrophy of left ventricle a. and c.
Component that specifically forms the tubotympanic recess which then forms the tympanic cavity and auditory tube 1st pharyngeal pouch
Component that specifically forms from the saccule Choclear duct
The entire heart is derived from ________ mesoderm located in the ______ plate Splanchnic, cardiogenic
What embryonic structures take part in the formation of the membranous interventricular septum? Right conal ridge, left conal ridge, posterior (inferior) endocardial cushion
What specific structure(s) is/are derived from the INFERIOR part of the right venous valve of the sinu-atrial orifice? valve of inferior vena cava, valve of coronary sinus (Crista terminalis also given and not marked wrong)
Vessels which develop from blood islands of the yolk sac Vitelline
List the hypaxial derivative(s) of the lumber myotomes Quadratus lumborum
Name 3 muscular components formed from the 1st branchial arch mm. of mastication, mylohyoid, ant. belly of digastric, tensor tympani, tensor veli palatine
Describe the formation of the tympanic membrane (mention germ layer(s) and embryonic structure(s) involved) Ectoderm from floor of 1st pharyngeal cleft, endoderm from expanded 1st pharyngeal pouch, mesoderm intervenes between ectodermal (cleft) and endodermal (pouch) layers
During the development of the inner ear, surface ectoderm thickens to form the _________. This item soon invaginates to form an ______ which subsequently loses contact with the surface to form the _____. Otic placode, otic pit, otic vessicle
Give the derivatives from the cartilage of the 2nd branchial arch. Stapes Styloid process Lesser horn and superior half of hyoid
Give the specific epimere derivative(s) of thoracic myotomes. Deep intrinsic back muscles thoracic area
The hypomere is innervated by ___________ of spinal nerves and forms _________ ( flexor, extensor ) muscles of the vertebral column. Primary ventral rami Flexor
Name the muscular components formed from the 4th branchial arch. Cricothyroid Levator veli palantmi Constrictors of pharynx
Name the germ layer responsible for: a) uveal layer of iris- b) choroid layer- a) Mesoderm b) Mesoderm
During the development of the eye, the optic cup is attached to the diencephalon by the narrow ____________ which later contains the fibers of the optic nerve. In addition, a space termed the ______ separates the inner and outer layers of the optic cup. Optic stalk Intraretinal cleft
What causes coloboma? ( BE SPECIFIC ) Failure of choroid fissure to fuse/close
What SPECIFIC part of the eye forms from the following? a) outer layer of the optic cup ( posterior 4/5ths )- b) inner layer of the optic cup ( anterior 1/5th )- a) Pigment layer of retina b) Inner layer of ciliary bodies and iris
________________ major intraembryonic arteries formed near midline of the embryo Dorsal aortae
________________ the definitive derivative of the left common cardinal vein Oblique vein of left atrium
________________ opening that forms when the upper part of septum primum perforates Ostium secundum
SPECIFICALLY, what causes the interventricular foramen to close? (use adult structures for your answer ) Primitive ventricle and proximal 1/3 of bulbis cordis grow outward, causing the medial walls to fuse forming the pars muscularis. To complete closure the pars membranosus forms from the L & R conal ridges and the posterior endocardium cushion’s swelling
________________ name given to the middle 1/3 of the bulbus cordis Conus cordis
What specific structure(s) is/are derived from the INFERIOR part of the right venous valve of the sinuatrial orifice? Valve of coronary sinus Valve of inferior vena cava
Due to the _____ degree rotation of the ____________ plate, the future pericardial cavity lies __________ ( dorsal, ventral ) to the developing heart. 180 Prochordal plate and cardiogenic plate Ventral
Specifically, why is the sinuatrial fold important? Shifts opening of sinu venosus to right side of common atrium
Briefly discuss the directional movements of the bulbus cordis and primitive ventricle as the bulboventricular sulcus develops. The bulbus cordis gets shifted to the right of the pericardial cavity, and the primitive ventricle gets shifted to the left of the pericardial cavity
_______________ forms the principle cavity of right atrium Right horn of sinus venosus
____________ component that SPECIFICALLY develops from the utricle Semicircular canals
____________ component that forms the external auditory meatus 1st pharyngeal cleft
Give the derivatives from cartilages of the 4th and 6th branchial arches. Cartilages of larynx
Make a short flow diagram showing the differentiation of a somite. Sclerotome  Somite  Dermotomes ↓ Myotomes
Give 3 derivatives from the hypomere of the cervical myotomes. Scalenes Infrahyoid Geniohyoid
Name the nerve of the 2nd branchial arch. Facial (CN VII)
The uveal iris forms what part of the iris (outermost part, inner layer, pigment layer, entire iris)? Outermost
Choroid layer Pigment layer of retina
Draw a small diagram showing the most usual appearance of coloboma in the ADULT eye. Something like this
List the origin (neuroectoderm, surface ectoderm, mesoderm/mesenchyme, or endoderm) of the following eye components: a) lens- b) neural retina- a) surface ectoderm b) neuroectoderm
____________ vessels which develop from blood islands of the yolk sac (be specific) Vitelline
During early development, the primitive heart is suspended in the __________ cavity by a mesentery known as the dorsal ___________ Pericardial, Mesocardium
Give the derivatives of: a. the right horn of the sinus venosus b. the left horn of the sinus venosus a. Sinus venarum b. Coronary sinus
Give the day when the heart: a) begins to beat b) tubes fuse a. 22-23b. 21
Forms trabeculated part of right ventricle ONLY Trabeculated part of bulbus cordis, proximal 1/3rd of bulbis cordis
Forms the smooth-walled part of the left atrium Primitive single pulmonary v.
The TWO most effective methods of birth control are: Anatomy lectures, small children (was on MASH, may be a joke but I included it - hee hee)
Give the specific epimere derivative(s) of thoracic myotomes Intercostal mm., subcostal m., abdominal obliques
OLD EMBRYO FROM THE SPREADSHEET IS NOT INCLUDED AS IT WAS NOT COVERED IN OUR CLASS. ALSO T/F is NEXT as individual questions. OLD EMBRYO FROM THE SPREADSHEET IS NOT INCLUDED AS IT WAS NOT COVERED IN OUR CLASS. ALSO T/F is NEXT as individual questions.
a. the diploid number of chromosomes is 23 b. union of male and female gametes starts at the embryonic period c. capacitation takes about 7 hours (false – 46) (false – pre-embryonic) (true)
d. the acrosome reaction is the removal of a protein coat from the sperm head e. the zona pellucida is the first barrier a sperm must penetrate (false – capacitation) (false – corona radiate)
a.penetration of the oocyte cell membrane causes the oocyte to finish the 2nd meiotic division b.a morula forms at about 3 days postfertilization c.cleavage involves a series of cell divisions forming blastomeres (true) (true) (true)
d.the blastocyst is a solid ball of about 12-16 cells e. the zona pellucida disappears before implantation (false – morula) (true)
a. the syncytiotrophoblast gives rise to the cytotrophoblast (b. development of the trophoblast eventually forms most of the placenta and extraembryonic membranes c. the amnion is formed by an outer layer of amnioblasts false – other way around) (true) (false – inner layer amnioblasts and outer layer extraembryonic somatopleuric mesoderm)
d. a hydatidiform mole is a malignant tumor formed from chorionic remnants e. the bilaminar embryonic disc forms during the first week of development (false – benign tumor) (false – 2nd week)
Which is true concerning the formation of the trilaminar disc? a. embryonic endoderm is mostly formed from the hypoblast b. the epiblast gives rise to embryonic ectoderm but not the mesoblast – (false – mesoblast) (false)
c. the three germ layers are: epiblast, mesoblast, and hypoblast d. the trilaminar disc is formed during the 2nd week e. mesoblastic cells displace most of the hypobalstic cells (false – embryonic ectoderm, intraembryonic mesoderm, embryonic endoderm) (false – 3rd week) (true)
a. morphogenesis occurs mainly during the fetal period b. the adrenal cortex develops from lateral plate mesoderm c. fusion of the vitelline duct and connecting stalk form the umbilical cord (false – embryonic) (true) (true)
d. the anterior pituitary is derived from ectoderm e. the human gestational period is 38 weeks postfertilization (true) (true)
a. the embryonic period begins at 3 weeks of development b. the diploid number of chromosomes is 23 c. the corona radiata is the 2nd barrier a sperm must penetrate (true) (false – 46) (false – 1st barrier)
d. the zona reaction involves removal of a protein coat e. only about 200 to 300 million sperms reach the fertilization site (false – capacitation) (false – 300-500)
a. the trophoblast forms the embryo proper (i.e., the body) b. the yolk sac is formed by an outer layer of endoderm c. a hydatidiform mole is a benign tumor from chorionic remnants false – embryoblast) (false – inner layer) (true)
d. uteroplacental circulation involves maternal sinusoids and the cytotrophoblast e. the trilaminar embryonic disc develops during the 2nd week (false – lacunae of syncytiotrophoblasts) (false – 3rd week)
a. the blastocyst forms at about 4 to 4 ½ days of development b. the zona pellucida disappears when the blastocyst stage is reached c. female and male pronuclei replicate their DNA before forming zygote (true) (true) (true)
d. the blastocyst forms an embryoblast and trophoblast e. the morula consists of about 24 to 26 cells (true) (false – 12-16 blastomeres)
a. lateral and cephalocaudal folding occur during the 3rd week b. gut formation and amniotic cavity surrounding the embryo are due to BOTH lateral and cephalocaudal folding c. in general the embryo has a caudocephalic gradient of differentiation (false – 4th week) (true) (false – cephalocaudal)
d. embryonic endoderm forms mostly from the hypoblast e. remnants of the notochord may form a teratoma (false – mesoblast) (false – primitive streak)
a. histogenesis occurs mostly during the fetal period b. the human gestational period is 40 weeks postfertilization c. morphogenesis occurs mostly during the embryonic period (true) (false – 38 weeks) also (40 weeks last menstrual cycle) (true)
d. the individual takes on a human appearance during the fetal period e. the spleen develops from lateral plate mesoderm (true) (true)
a. the diploid number of chromosomes is n b. capacitation involves perforation of the sperm head c. the zona pellucida is the 1st barrier a sperm must penetrate (false – 2n) (false – acrosome reaction) OR (involves removal of protein coat from sperm head) (false – corona radiata)
d. of the initial 200-300 million sperm only 3000-5000 reach the oocyte e. one function of fertilization is the initiation of cleavage (false – 300-500) (true)
The blastocyst… a. is a ball of about 12-16 blastomeres b. has an inner cell mass termed the trophoblast c. is surrounded by the zona pellucida until the 7th day d. implants at 5 ½ - 6 days e. forms at 3 days postfertilization d. implants at 5 ½ - 6 days
a. lacunae of synctiotrophoblast tap maternal sinusoids b. a hydatidiform mole is a benign tumor from chorion remnants c. the spleen develops from the intermediate mesoderm (true) (true) (false – lateral plate)
d. during the acrosome reaction hyaluronidase, etc. is released e. both male and female pronuclei replicate their DNA (true) (true)
a. the hypoblast forms most embryonic endoderm b. the chorionic cavity is also called the extraembryonic coelom c. teratomas develop from chorionic remnants (false – mesoblast) (true) (false – develop from primitive streak remnants)
d. the tonsils develop from ectoderm e. histogenesis occurs primarily during the embryonic period (“the thyroid develops from lateral plate mesoderm” in another question) (false) (false – fetal period)
a. cephalocaudal folding occurs primarily during the 3rd week b. the embryonic period is weeks 3-8 c. lateral and cephalocaudal folding causes part of yolk sac to form gut (another q. – “lateral folding occurs…” ) (false – 4th week) (true) (true)
d. the primitive node and pit give rise to the notochord e. the gestational period is 40 weeks from the last menstrual period (true) (true)
a. the blastocyst begins to form at 5 ½ to 6 days b. the zona pellucida disappears before implantation c. penetration of the oocyte cell membrane causes the oocyte to finish the 2nd meiotic division (false – 4-4.5 days) (true) (true)
d. a morula is a solid ball of about 12-16 cells e. cleavage involves a series of cell divisions forming blastomeres (true) (true)
a. the diploid number of chromosomes is n b. capacitation involves perforation of the sperm head c. the zona pellucida is the 1st barrier a sperm must penetrate (false – 2n) (false – involves removal of protein coat) OR (acrosome reaction) (false – corona radiata)
d. of the initial 200-300 million sperm only 3000-5000 reach the oocyte e. fertilization in the distal 1/3 of the uterine tube is best (false – 300-500) (true)
a. one function of fertilization is the initiation of cleavage b. the zona reaction releases hyaluronidase and trypsin like enzymes c. about 300-500 million sperms reach the fertilization site (true) (false – acrosome reaction) OR (penetration by additional sperm to zona pellucida becomes impossible) (false – 300-500)
. the haploid number of chromosomes is 23 pairs e. capacitation involves the removal of mucopolysaccharide coat (false – 23 (not pairs)) (false – protein coat)
the corona radiata is the first barrier a sperm must penetrate b. blastomeres is the name given to the cells during cleavage c. the blastocyst forms at about 3 days postfertilization ( (true) (true) (false – 4-4.5 days)
female and male pronuclei replicate their DNA before forming a zygote e. the zona pellucida disappears during the blastocyst stage (true) (true)
the yolk sac has an inner layer of embryonic endoderm b. the amniotic cavity has an inner layer of extraembryonic somatopleuric mesoderm c. the chorionic cavity is also called the exocoelomic cavity (false – extraembryonic endoderm) (false – amnioblasts) (false – yolk sac)
the chorion has villi and forms most of the placenta e. a chorionepithelioma is a benign tumor from chorionic remnants (true) (false – malignant)
Which ONE of the following statements is TRUE concerning the trilaminar embryonic disc? a. it forms during the 4th week b. the 3 germ layers are epiblast, mesoblast, and hypoblast (false – 3rd week) (false – embryonic endoderm, intraembryonic mesoderm, embryonic ectoderm)
the notochord develops from cells at the caudal end of the streak d. the hypoblast forms little if any embryonic endoderm e. the trilaminar disc forms during the pre-embryonic period (false) (true) (false – embryonic period)
a. the fetal period is weeks 9-38 postfertilization b. taking on a human appearance is a characteristic of the fetal period c. lateral and cephalocaudal folding of the body occur in the 4th week (true) (true) (true)
d. the urogenital system develops from the lateral plate mesoderm e. the embryonic period is the most critical of development (false – intermediate mesoderm) (true)
a. capacitation takes about 7 hours b. the 2n number of chromosomes is 23 c. the pre-embryonic period is weeks 1-3 (true) (false – 46) (false – 1-2 weeks)
d. the acrosome reaction is the removal of a protein coat e. the cell membrane is the 2nd barrier a sperm must pass (false – perforation of acrosome wall) (false – 3rd barrier) OR (zona pellucida)
a. penetration of the oocyte cell membrane causes the oocyte to finish the 2nd meiotic division b. the morula forms at about 4 to 4 ½ days c. the blastocyst may be a hollow ball of about 58 cells (true) (false – 3 days) (true)
d. cleavage involves a series of mitotic divisions e. the zona pellucida disappears before implantation (true) (true)
a. the spleen develops from intermediate mesoderm b. the epithelium of the lungs develops from endoderm c. the primitive pit and node give rise to the notochord (false – lateral plate mesoderm) (true) (true)
d. the blastocyst implants at about 5 ½ to 6 days e. uteroplacental circulation begins as lacunae tap maternal sinusoids (true) (true)
a. the hypoblast forms most embryonic mesoderm b. the yolk sac has an inner layer of embryonic endoderm c. a hydatiform mole is an invasive tumor which tunnels through the chorion components (false – epiblast) (false – extraembryonic endoderm) (false – benign tumor)
d. the fetal period is 9-40 weeks postfertilization e. the yolk sac is also called the exocoelemic cavity (false – from last menstruation) (true)
a. the trilaminar embryonic disc forms during the embryonic period b. chorionic remains may form teratomes c. lateral and cephalocaudal folding of the embryo occur in the 4th week (true) (false - primitive streak) (true)
d. the gut develops from part of the yolk sac e. a characteristic of the fetal period is that the embryo takes on a human appearance (true) (true)
Created by: Brooke Breitbach Brooke Breitbach on 2011-05-22



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