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Mash Histo II Test 2

NWHSU Histo 2 Test 2

QuestionAnswer
Aldosterone stimulates the cells of the distal tubule to ________.. absorb sodium and secrete potassium
At ovulation, what occurs to facilitate sperm migration through the cervix? mucus is more acidic and more hydrated.
bb) enzymes required for the conversion of thyroglobulin to active T3 & T4 bb) lysosomal enzymes
Consider a person with low levels of insulin: a) What happens to the sugar level in the blood? b) What happens to sugar level in the urine? c) If persistent, what can be dangerous about this condition? a) increases levels because insulin can’t break it down b) increases because the proximal tubule doesn’t get a chance to break it down c) dehydration and acidosis
Consider the effects of estrogen: a) In the uterus it stimulates the _________phase of the endometrium b) IN the mammary glands causes_________. c) In the adenohypophysis it causes_______. a) Proliferation phase. b) increase mitosis of the tubular ducts. c) stimulates the LH and inhibits the FSH.
Consider the formation of estrogen role of: a) Lutenizing Hormone b) Follice Stimulating Hormone a) stimulates theca interna to make androgen from cholesterol. b) stimulates granulose to make estrogen from androgen.
Consider the ovarian follicles: a) What hormone stimulates the granulose cells in the follicular phase b) What do the granulosa cells do in response to this stimulation? a) Follicular Stimulating Hormone b) More estrogen from androgen.
Consider the post-pubescent female. Give the effects of: a) progesterone on the mammary gland b) estrogen on the adenohyphysis c) estrogen on the vaginal mucosa d) estrogen on the oviduct e) progesterone on the endometrium a) edema of the stroma, increase stroma b) Increase Lutenizing hormone, decrease FSH secretion, move fimbriae close to ovary c) increase glycogen, and sloughing off of epithelieum d) Ciliogenesis increase in secretion. e)endometrium secretes glycogen
Describe the cytology of the proximal tubule as it relates to its function. ?Increased surface area, absorbtion?
Describe the function of the epididymus. stores sperm, stimulates functional maturation
Describe the state of the chromosomes in the primordial follicle. 2nDNA
Does the membranous portion of the male urethra pass through the urogenital diaphragm? TRUE
Does the penile portion of the urethra contain mucus glands in the lamina propria? TRUE
Does the urinary bladder contain three poorly defined layers of smooth muscle? TRUE
Does the urinary blader contain no glands in the lamina propria? TRUE
Draw and label the primordial follicle. basil lamina, follicular cells, minor zona pallucida, embedded in the stroma of the cortex
During the normal ovarian cycle, estrogen produces: a) the ____________phase in the endometrium. b) ciliogenesis in the __________. c) An increase in the secretion of ____________by adenohyphysis. a)Proliferation b) oviduct cells c)LH
Edema of the endometrial and mammary stromas is caused by_____________? Progesterone
Enzymes required for the conversion of thyroglobulin to active T3 and T4. lysosomal enzymes
Epithelium of the prostatic urethra is ________. transitional epithelium
Estrogen is synthesized and secreted by the ______. interstitial cells of the stroma
Estrogen is synthesized and secreted by the cells of the ________________. ovary
Following are true about the Leydig Cells. A-secretes testosterone B-contain abundant smooth ER C -are NOT located in the seminiferous tubules D -are a target of LH A- T B-T C-F (found in the interstices between adjacent seminiferous tubules.)
Following are true of sertoli cells. A-do NOT differentiate from precursors at puberty B-contain microtubules which may help move germ cells C-secrete androgen binding protein D-form the blood-testis barrier a.? B. True C. True D. True
Following are true of spermatogenesis. A.-includes a period of morphogenesis -includes a period of meosis -begins at puberty -does not result in functionally mature spermatozoa A- F (period of morphological changes) B- T C- T D- F (mature in epidiymus)
From what tissue does the ovarian theca folliculi develop? Theca Interna.
FSH in the male stimulates the secretion of _________________ by the ______________ cells. androgen binding protein; sertoli cells
Give the effects of estrogen on: a) Oviduct epithelium b) Vaginal epithelium c) Mammary gland a) ciliogenesis increase in secretion b) increase glycogen production c) mitosis of ducts
Give the two requirements for spermatogenesis. high levels of testosterone; intimate contact with sertoli cells
Helicine arteries in the penis relax in response to A _____ which allows blood to enter B _____ A parasympathetic stimulator B cavernous spaces
High blood levels of this hormone facilitate the conversation of norepinephrine to epinephrine. cortisol
High local levels of testosterone are required for spermatogenesis. How is this accomplished? FSH causes sertoli cells to secrete androgen binding protein which binds testosterone secreted by leydig cells to produce high levels in the seminiferous tubule.
Hormone in low levels in infancy results in mental retardation. thyroid hormones, T3 and T4
Hormone required in infancy for normal brain development. T3 & T4
Hormone responsible for redevelopment of the ovarian follicle. follicle stimulating hormone
Hormone responsible for breast development in puberty. human chorionic gonadotrophin
Hormone responsible for ovulation. leuteinizing hormone - surge
Hormone secreted by from the adrenal cortex. neither estrogen nor progesterone
Hormone secreted by neurons. Norepinephrine and Epinephrine
Hormone secreted by the interstitial stroma glands of the ovary. estrogen
Hormone secreted by the neurons of the hypothalamus. Gonadotropin Releasing Factors or LHRF and FSHRF
Hormone secreted due to stimulation primarily by ACTH. cortisol
Hormone secreted from granulosa lutein cells. estrogen
Hormone that causes ciliogenesis in the oviduct epithelium. estrogen
Hormone that causes glucose to move into most cells. insulin
Hormone that causes growth of ductal epithelium in the mammary gland during a normal ovarian cycle. estrogen
Hormone that causes the breakdown of glycogen to glucose. glucagon
Hormone that causes the collecting duct to become permeable to water. antidiuretic hormone
Hormone that causes the formation of glucose from amino acids. cortisol
Hormone that decreases blood potassium. aldosterone
Hormone that increases blood glucose by glycogenolysis. Glucagon, epinephrine, cortisol
Hormone that increases blood levels of calcium. parathyroid hormone
Hormone that increases movement of glucose into the hepatocyte. (Also worded: Promotes the uptake of glucose by the hepatocyte.) insulin
Hormone that inhibit the immune system with high levels of cortisol
Hormone that inhibits both FSH (Follicle Stimulating Hormone) and LH (luteinizing hormone) progesterone
Hormone that inhibits the secretion of growth hormone. Insulin-like growth factor 1 and somatostatin
Hormone that inhibits the secretion of insulin and glucagon. epinephrine and norepinephrine
Hormone that stimulates ciliogenesis in oviduct epithelium. estrogen
Hormone that stimulates edema in the mammary stroma and in the endometrium. progesterone
Hormone that stimulates glycogen formation in the vaginal epithelium. estrogen
Hormone that stimulates milk synthesis in lactating mammary gland. prolactin
Hormone that stimulates processes in the vagina which lead to an increased pH progesterone
Hormone that stimulates secretion of progesterone by the corpus luteum in pregnancy. human chorionic gonadotrophin
Hormone that stimulates testosterone synthesis and secretion by the Leydig cells. luteinizing hormone
Hormone that stimulates the distal tubule to secrete potassium. Aldosterone
Hormone that stimulates the LH (luteinizing hormone) surge estrogen
Hormone that stimulates the mobilization of proteins in order to form glucose. cortisol
Hormone that stimulates the secretory phase of the endometrium. progesterone
Hormone whose secretion is inhibited and results in shedding of the endometrium. progesterone
Hormone whose secretion is stimulated by adrenocorticotrophic hormone. cortisol
Hormone whose secretion is stimulated by elevated blood potassium. Aldosterone
Hormone whose secretion is stimulated by preganglionic sympathetic Norepinephrine and Epinephrine
How does the cervical mucous secreted at mid cycle differ from that secreted during the rest of the cycles? Increase volume, more hydrated.
In addition to inhibition, the Sertoli cell secretes A.______ in response to B. ______ C. Why is this vital for normal spermatogenesis? A. androgen binding protein B. Follicle stimulating hormone C. The androgen binding protein binds to the testosterone sesecreted by Leydig cells and this binds increases the local levels of testosterone to facilitate spermatogenesis
In menses, the ___________ layer of the endometrium is NOT soughed off? Basal.(stratum basalis)
In menses, the ______________layer of the endometrium shoughs off when concentration of ____________falls below critical levels. Functional, Progesterone
In order to achieve high local levels of testosterone in the seminiferous tubule, the sertoli cells secrete A. _____ in response to B.______. Androgen binding protein; FSH
In penile erection, ____ stimulation causes constriction of the helcine artery and _____ stimulation causes dilation or relaxation. sympathetic; parasympathetic
In penile erection, A. ____ causes closure of the arteriovenous shunt and relaxation of helicine arteries thus causing the B.______to fill with blood. parasympathetic B. cavernous copora
In penile erection, A. _____ stimulation causes both the relaxation of helicine artery smooth muscle and B. _____ , allowing blood to enter the cavernous spaces. A parasympathetic B constriction of the Arterio-Venous shunts
In penile erection, blood flows from the _____ artery into the _____. helicine; corpus cavernosa and corpora spongiosum
In penile erection, blood flows from the _________ artery into the _______? helicine artery; cavernous space
In penile erection, parasympathic stimulation causes the constriction of A ____ and relaxation of B______ A-Arterio-Venous shunts B helicine artery
In penile erection, the A______ artery relaxes (opens) in response to B. ______ stimulation. A Helicine B parasympathetic
In penile erection,______ stimulation causes constriction of _______ arteries and ______ stimulation causes dilation or relaxation. parasympathetic; ?; arterio-venous shunt
In pregnancy, what hormone stimulates the secretion of progesterone by the corpus luteum? Lutenizing Hormone.
In spermatogenesis, cytokinesis is completed at the end of _____. spermiogenesis
In spermatogenesis, the primary spermatocytes develop from the spermatogonia by process of ___. mitosis and differentiation
In the formation of estrogen in the ovary__________stimulates the____________cells to synthesize androgens form cholesterol/ LH, Theca Interna.
In the kidney, the efferent arterioles lead to two vascular beds: the A._______in the cortex and the B. _______in th medulla. A. peritubular COP (Colloid Osmotic Pressure) B. vasa recta
In the lactating mammary gland A. ______ stimulates the synthesis of milk and B. _______stimulates contraction of myoepithelial cells. A. Prolactin B. Oxytocin
In the Ovarian follicle, FSH stimulates the ____________ cell to form estrogen from androgen. Granulosa
In the testis, FSH causes the Sertoli cells to secrete adrogen binding protein
In vaginal epithelium, the amount of glycogen and the rate of sloughing are dependant on estrogen (the more estrogen, the more glycogen and sloughing) When would glycogen levels likely be highest? Why is this significant? During ovulation increases the glycogen which hydrates the mucus at the cervical entrance, allowing better access for sperm
In which portion of the male reproductive system do sperm reach functional maturity? Epididymis
Is the prostatic urethra lined by transitional epithelium? TRUE
Is the urinary bladder lined by transitional epithelium? TRUE
List the components of the renal filtration barrier beginning from inside the glomerulus. 1) fenestrated endothelium without diaphragms; 2) basal lamina at endothelium; 3) podocytes which are fused; 4) slit pores with slit membranes
Most testicular tumors arise from __________and are a highly malignant. germ cells
Name the accessory male productive organ described: a. secretes a product high in fructose and prostaglandins b. secretes acid phosphatase seminal vesicle b. prostate
Name the accessory male reproductive gland described A. may contain condensations of secretory material called corpora amylacea. B. secretes prostaglandins and fructose C. produces a mucus-like lubricant A prostate B seminiferous vesicles C bulbourethral gland
Name the following: A. Location of motile cilia B. secretes a product high in prostoglandins and fructose C. secretes a mucus-like lubricant D. Psudostratified epithelium with stereocilia a. efferent duct b. seminal vesicle c. bulbourethral gland d. epididymis
Name the following: E. Secretes a product high in acid phosphotase F. Absorbes most of the fluid secreted by the seminiferous tubule e. prostate f. epididymis
Name the hormones described below: a) increases blood levels of calcium b) secretion is stimulated by adrenocorticotrophic hormone c) increases movement of glucose into the hepatocyte d) required in infancy for normal brain development a) parathyroid hormone b) cortisol c) insulin d) T3 & T4
Name the hormones described below: aa) stimulates secretion of progesterone by the corpus luteum in: 1. normal ovarian cycle 2. pregnancy aa) 1. LH 2. HCG (human chorionic gonadotrophin)
Name the hormones described below: e) causes the collecting duct to become permeable to water f) increases blood glucose by glycogenolysis g) secretion is stimulated by elevated blood K+ h) causes ciliogenesis in the oviduct epithelium e) ADH f) Glucagon, epinepherine and cortisol g) Aldosterone h) Estrogen
Name the hormones described below: i) stimulates the secretory phase of the endometrium j) causes growth of ductal epithelium in the mammary gland during a normal ovarian cycle k) stimulates milk synthesis in the lactating mammary gland i) Progesterone j) Estrogen k) Prolactin
Name the hormones described below: l) secreted by the interstitial stroma glands of the ovary m) stimulates glycogen formation in the vaginal epithelium n) inhibit the secretion of insulin and glucagons o) causes glucose to move into most cells l) Estrogen m) Estrogen n) Epinephrine and norepinephrine o) Insulin
Name the hormones described below: p) causes the breakdown of glycogen to glucose q) causes the formation of glucose from amino acids r) decreases blood K+ s) low levels in infancy will result in mental retardation p) Epinephrine and glucagon q) Cortisol r) Aldosterone s) T3 & T4
Name the hormones described below: t) secreted by the neurons of the hypothalamus u) responsible for development of the ovarian follicle v) secretion is stimulated primarily by ACTH w) responsible for ovulation t) ADH and somatostatin u) FSH v)cortisol w) LH (surge)
Name the hormones described below: x) responsible for breast development at puberty y) high blood levels of this facilitate the conversion of norepinephrine to epinephrine z) stimulates testosterone synthesis and secretion by the Leydig cells x) GH, estrogen and progesterone y) Cortisol z) LH
Name the male accessory gland which secretes: A. fructose, prostaglandins and UV fluorescent flavins B. acid phosphotase A. seminal vesicle -B. prostate
Name the portion of the uriniferous tubule that absorbs 85% of the water from the filtrate. proximal tubule
Name the portion of the uriniferous tubule that contain specialized sensory epithelium. distal tubule
Name the portion of the uriniferous tubule that contains simple squamous epithelium. thin segment
Name the portion of the uriniferous tubule that contains the macula densa. distal tubule
Name the portion of the uriniferous tubule that forms the interstitial concentration-osmotic gradient. (also worded: interstitial osmotic gradient) thin segment
Name the portion of the uriniferous tubule that forms the slit pores of the filtration barrier. podocytes
Name the portion of the uriniferous tubule that is a target of ADH and becomes permeable to water when stimulated by ADH. distal tubule and collecting duct
Name the portion of the uriniferous tubule that is a target of aldosterone. distal tubule
Name the portion of the uriniferous tubule that is highly acidophilic and has a dense micovillus border. proximal tubule
Name the portion of the uriniferous tubule that is the only site of glucose absorption from the ultra filtrate. proximal tubule
Name the portion of the uriniferous tubule that secretes K+ in response to aldosterone. distal tubule
Name the portion of the uriniferous tubule that supports the glomerular capillary loop. distal tubule
Name the portion of the uriniferous tubule: e) forms the interstitial concentration/osmotic gradient f) only site of glucose absorption from the ultrafiltrate g) contains the macula densa e) thin segment f) proximal tubule g) distal tubule
Name the portion of the uriniferous tubule: h) target of ADH, becomes permeable to water when stimulated by ADH i) forms the slit pores of the filtration barrier j) secretes K+ in response to aldosterone k) supports the glomerular capillary loop h) distal tubule and collecting duct i) podocytes j) distal tubule k) distal tubule
Name the portion of the uriniferous tubule:a) absorbs 85% of the water from the filtrate b) target of aldosterone c) highly acidophilic, has a dense microvillus border d) simple squamous epithelium a) proximal tubule b) distal tubule c) proximal tubule d) thin segment
Nephrotic syndrome associated with diabetes mellitus is due to an abnormality in the _____. glomerular basement membrane
Other than phagocytosis, give one possible role of mesagium. maintenance of the glomerular membrane
Ovarian hair cells secrete__________? Androgen
Renin is secreted by the _____ cells which are located in the wall of the ____. juxtaglomerular cells; afferent arterioles
Sertoli cells secrete A.________in response to stimulation by B. ________ A. Androgen Binding Protein B. FSH (Follicle Stimulating Hormone)
Smooth muscle of the accessory glands and excretory ducts of the male reproductive system is innervated by? sympathetics
Smooth muscle of the vas deferens is innervated by? sympathetic
Specialized area of the distal tubule which may be sensory. macula densa
Sperm are stored in, and become functionally mature in the? Epididymis
Spermatozoa reach functional maturity in the: epididymis
Synthesis and secretion of milk is stimulated by? Prolactin
The _______ is a common site of metaplasia/dysplasia that may develop into cervical cancer. transformation zone (also called squamous-columnar junction)
The ____cells secrete testosterone in response to _____. This is sequestered in the seminiferous tubule by_______, a molecule secreted by the sertoli cell in response to _______. leydig cells, LH, androgen binding protein, FSH
The A_______ arteries supply the erectile tissue of the penis and dilate in response to B. ______ stimulation helicine; parasympathetic
The accessory male productive organ that secrets a product high in fructose and prostaglandins. seminal vesicle
The accessory male productive organ that secrets acid phosphotase. prostate
The blood-testes barrier is formed by A______ B what cells are NOT protected. A sertoli cells and occluding jcts. B spermatogonia
The conversion of angiotensinogen to angiotensin I is stimulated by ______ which is secreted by _______. renin; juxtaglomerular cells
The corpus luteum of pregnancy is maintained by A. ______(hormone) which is secreted by B.______. A. human chorionic gonadotropin B. Trophoblasts
The external urethral sphincter is formed by _____. Skeletal muscle of pelvic diaphragm
The external urethral sphincter is formed by __________. skeletal muscle of the Urogenital diaphragm
The internal urethral sphincter is formed from ____________. Middle circular smooth muscle
The interstitial cells of the ovarian stroma secrete___________. What is the likely product? Estrogen; The development of secondary sex characteristics at puberty.
The ovarian hair cells secrete__________________. androgen
The primary spermatocyte develops from A _____ (cell) by the process of B______, A. spermatagonia B.mitosis and differentiation
The secondary oocyte is ovulated. How much DNA does it have? 2N
The sertoli cell secretes two products in response to FSH. Name these products and give their function androgen binding protein, binds to testosterone to produce high local levels in seminiferous tubules for spermatogenesis; Inhibin, provides negative feedback to turn off FSH
The stroma of both the mammary glands and the endometrium become edematous in response to? Progesterone
The synthesis of the milk begins 1-2 days after delivery. Why? increase estrogen and progesterone levels inhibit prolactin.
The underlying pathogenesis for most cases of primary glomerularnephritis involves the ______system. renal
This hormone stimulates secretion of progesterone by the corpus luteum in the normal ovarian cycle. luteinizing hormone
Vaginal glycogen comes from________ cells and is produced in response to_________. epithelial lining estrogen
What are the podocyte contributions to the renal filtration barrier? slit pores; slit pore membrane
What can be dangerous about persistent low levels of insulin? dehydration and acidosis
What cells are in the adluminal compartment of the blood-testis barrier? primary spermatocyte, secondary spermatocyte, spermatid & spermatozoa
What cells are not protected by the blood-testis barrier? spermatogonia
What cells comprise the lining of the prepubescent testis? sertoli cells; germinal cells
What cytology of the proximal tubule cell suggests its function? microvilli for absorption and lateral basal infoldings
What effect does follicular estrogen have on the adenohypophysis? increases LH; decreases FSH
What forms the blood-testis barrier? occluding junctions between the sertoli cells
What happens to sugar level in the urine in a person with low levels of insulin? increases
What hormone dependant benign tumor, formed of smooth muscle, is commonly found in the uterus? Leiomyoma
What hormone event stimulates the menstrual phase of the endometrium? Decreased progesterone.
What hormone stimulates the secretory phase of endometrium? Progesterone
What is a characteristic of chronic renal failure? Uremia
What is part of the secondary ovarian follicle? granulosa; theca interna; zona pellucida
What is the effect of progesterone on the mammary gland in a normal ovarian cycle? increases CT; causes edema (swelling)
What is the first cell to become protected by the blood-testis barrier? Why is this important? A.primary spermatocyte B.If this cell was not protected the immune system would attach it (destroy it) and thus spermatogenesis could not proceed.
What is the function of the macula densa? the sense the concentration of molecules in the filtrate
What is the most common disorder of the prostate gland? benign prostatic hyperplasia
What is the significance of glycogen in the vaginal epithelium? make the environment more acidic for the sperm; to be released into the lumen when cells are sloughed off.
What is the source of sexually stimulated vaginal lube? Transudate from vascular plexus deep in the epithelium in vagina.
What is the structure of the primordial follicle? primary oocytes that have acquired a single layer of flat surrounding cells (granulosa). See diagram in mash!
What is true of the male urethra? the prostatic urethra is lined by transitional epithelium; the penile portion contains mucus glands in the lamina propria; the membranous portion passes through the urogenital diaphragm
What is true of the urinary bladder? it contains three poorly defined layers of smooth muscle; is lined by transitional epithelium; contains no glands in the lamina propria
What male reproductive organ contains motile cilia? efferent duct
What male reproductive organ has a duct that joins the ejaculatory duct and secretes a lubricating mucus? bulbourethral gland
What male reproductive organ is surrounded by peritubular contractile cells? seminiferous tubule
What male reproductive organ may form condensations? prostate
What male reproductive organ secretes a product high in acid phosphatase and citric acid, fibrinolysin and many have amylase? prostate
What male reproductive organ secretes a product high in prostaglandins? seminal vesicle
What male reproductive organ secretes products which stimulate functional maturation of spermatozoa? (Also worded: site of functional maturation of sperm) epididymis
What male reproductive organ, in elderly men, has benign hyperplasia? prostate
What male reproductive organs are lined by pseudostratified columnar epithelium with stereocilia? epididymis
What male reproductive organs have ducts that join the ejaculatory duct? seminal vesicle; vas deferens
What portions of the renal filtration barrier are formed by the glomerulus? Basal Lamina of Endothelium, Fenestrated Capillary of Endothelium
What possible functions are served by the blood-testis barrier? protection of spermatids, primary spermatocytes, secondary spermatocytes, spermatozoa, & maintenance of testosterone levels.
What processes are involved in the formation of primary spermatocytes from spermatogonia? mitosis and differentiation
What stimulate the Lutenizing Hormone surge? Increaseed levels of estrogen for 36 hours.
What symptoms would be caused by benign prostatic hyperplasia? Difficult urination; Retention of urine
Where are the juxtaglomerular cells located? What is there function? Wall of Afferent Arteriole; secrete renin
Where is the internal urethral sphincter in females? around neck of bladder and entire urethra
Where is the internal urethral sphincter in males? neck of bladder behind prostatic urethra
Where is the internal urethral sphincter in males? Females? in the neck of the bladder behind the prostatic urethra; around the neck of the bladder and the entire urethra
Which accessory gland In the male reproductive system secretes: -A. a product high in prostaglandins and fructose? -B. lubricating mucus? seminal vesicle; bulbourethral gland
Which accessory reproductive gland in the male secretes prostaglandins? Seminal vesicle
Which cells are protected by the blood-testis barrier? (includes 1st cell to become protected)? primary spermatocyte; secondary spermatocyte; spermatid; spermatozoa
Which cells are protected? primary and secondary spermatocytes, spermatids, spermatozoa
Which cells of the kidney may function to support the glomerulus and maintain the glomerular basal lamina? mesengial cells
Which excretory ducts in the male reproductive tract have motile cilia? efferent ducts
Which is true about the secretary phase of the endometrium? Uterine glands become highly coiled; Stroma becomes endematous; Spiral arteries become highly coiled
Which is true of germinal centers? likely the site of plasma cell formation; have a lymphocytic cap where mitosis occurs; Contain macrophages; a site of antigen dependant proliferation and differentiation
Which is true of the post-pubescent female mammary gland? lactiferous sinus is lined by two layers of cuboidal epithelium; estrogen stimulates proliferation of epithelial ducts; Progesterone stimulates growth of the stroma; Prolactin stimulates development of secretory ability.
Which male accessory gland secretes acid phosphotase and fibrinolysin? prostate
Which ones of the following are likely with low levels of insulin? A. starvation of the CNS B. Dehydration C. Ketones in the urine D. Increased blood pH E. Decreased respiratory rate Dehydration and Increased blood pH
Which portion of the endometrium is shed in menses? Functional layer
Which sites have germinal centers?
Why do leiomyomas regress after menopause lower estrogen
Give the two conditions necessary to concentrate urine. thin segments in medulla
Name the hormone which causes a decrease in protein stores. cortisol
Aldosterone results in decreased blood levels of A. _______and increased blood levels of B.____ A. K+ B. Na+
Adrenal medulla cells are stimulated by ________ acetylcholine (ACh)
Abnormalities in the structure of the glomerular basement results in excessive loss of _____in the urine which may eventually lead to nephrotic syndrome. protein
One hypothesixed role of mesangium is control of blood flow through the glomerulus. This is supported by observations that the mesangial cells have contractile elements which contract in response to _____ Angiotensin II
Squamous metaplasia near the external cervical os may block the drainage of mucus form deep clefts and result in a masses of mucus called_______ ?
The most common benign tumor in the uterus is composed of A.______. These tumors usually regress after menopause because they are B._____. A. Smooth muscle and CT of uterine wall B. Hormone dependent
Describe the state of the germ cell DNA in the secondary follicle. 2nDNA
What organelles are required for the conversion of thyroglobulin to T3 and T4? Endoplasmic Reticulum
Name the structures/cells of the uriniferous tubule described. A. Responds to antidiuretic hormone B. Secretes Renin C. Only site of glucose absorbtion D. Forms the slit pores E. Forms the interstitial osmotic gradient A. Distal tubule and collecting duct B. juxtaglomerular cells C. Proximal Tubule D. Podocytes E. Thin Segment
In diabetes mellitus, _____cells produce nodules (Kimmelstiel -Wilson nodules) in the renal corpuscle which inhibits function. mesengial
While the causes of many glomerular diseases are poorly understood, it appears that disturbances in ______ underlie most cases of primary glomerulonephritis. immune system
Which of the following are characteristics of renal failure? A. Glomerular filtration rate above 150 ml/minute B. Increase water loss in the urine C. Retention of electrolytes and nitrogenous wastes D. Decrease in urine volume C. Retention of electrolytes and nitrogenous wastes D. Decrease in urine volume
Name the cells/structure of the uriniferous tubule described. E. Are targets of aldosterone distal tubules AND collecting ducts
Describe why the adluminal compartment is important for spermatogenesis. protects developing germ cells while they develop through mitosis and differentiation and meiosis.
Most testicular tumors arise from ____ and are highly malignant. germ cells
Antigen dependent mitosis and differentiation of B lymphocytes gives rise to ________. plasma cells (memory and effector cells)
Which of the following are true of the thymic stroma? A. Secretes thymocin B. Is formed of fibroblasts C. Induces T-cell formation D. Usually contains germinal centers/nodules A. Secretes thymocin C. Induces T-cell formation
Which two characteristics of the lymph node sinusoids are particularly important for accomplishing the functions of the lymph node? 1. lymphoid tissue of the parenchyma 2. large macrophage population
Which cells of the spleen break down the components of dead red blood cells? macrophages
Give two notable features of the splenic stroma. 1. very small interstices 2. large number of macrophages
Salpingitis (possibly from infection by Chlamydia or Gonorrhea) may result in scarring and occlusion of the oviduct
Consider the primordial follicle. A. How much DNA does it have? B. What is the state of the DNA? A. 4nDNA B. Arrested development in Diplotene
Created by: AnatomyMash on 2012-06-17



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